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        European Megalithic Complexes: (Form and Function)

A look at the most prominent concentrations of European megalithic sites.

Household names such as the Orkney Islands, Boyne Valley, Carnac, Salisbury and Malta, were all functioning at the same period of time (c. 3,100 - 2,400 BC), at the height of the Neolithic period. Although they are scattered over a thousand miles of coastline, and cross several localised Neolithic regions, these 'complexes' are united by a set of specific and contemporary cultural features, a fact which suggests that - at the very least, they offered a common socio-religious experience to the people who lived alongside them.

The construction of so many grandiose complexes at this time united the Neolithic people in an important cultural way unseen before in Europe.  Their existence acted as a stabilising anchor, as demonstrated by the fact that in many cases the very same locations were re-used over and again for thousands of years. The development of such large-scale construction programs also created a requirement for specialised skills and crafts. But how are we to view these complexes today. Were they the prehistoric equivalent of modern cities, Astro-religious centres, what drove the western European Neolithic people to build so many civil-scale structures, and how are we to understand such a choreographed event through modern eyes.


 Examples of European Mega-Complexes:

The Following is a brief description of some of the better known prehistoric European complex's.


The Orkneys complex, Scotland. (Includes Brodgar, Stennes, Maes Howe, Skara Brae).

(Map of the Orkneys Complex)

The Orkneys shows a continuous Neolithic occupation from 3,500 onwards, with construction work on Stennes, Skara Brae and Brodgar starting at around 3,100 BC with Maes Howe being built soon after at around 2,800 BC. The Orkneys resists the standard description of the priorities of Neolithic communities in Europe at this time (in terms of survival), but is a classic example of a 'complex', perhaps being one of the last to be built by what appears to be a northerly immigration along the Atlantic coast by people casually termed 'Boat-people' or 'Grooved-ware-Beaker' people.

At the latitude of the Orkneys the major lunar standstills north becomes almost circumpolar, (neither rising nor setting - with the effect that the moon 'rolls' along the horizon). Because the Earth’s axial tilt has changed by nearly half a degree since the majority of the stone circles were built, this effect is no longer accurate and the latitude today would have to be 63° north for a lunar standstill north to be truly circumpolar (3)

Alexander Thom - 1969. Megalithic Lunar Observatories.:

'The moon from the Shetland Isles today is almost circumpolar, (when the moon is at its furthest north). In megalithic times, because of the greater obliquity - the moon from the high ground from northern parts of Island would have been circumpolar'.

Thom noted that the natural features in the surrounding landscape seemed to serve as distant markers for the rising and setting of the moon. A sightline to the cliffs of Hellia on Hoy, for example, seemed to mark the minor southern setting of the moon, while a notch on Mid Hill, to the south-east, defined the minor southern moonrise. (6)

The Orkneys' 'complex' is approximately 1.5° lower in latitude than the Shetlands, so the the moon would have still appeared to be partially circumpolar. Even today, Callanish on the Hebrides (58° N), still shows a similar effect with the Southern standstill. 

(More about the Orkneys complex)



The Salisbury complex. England. - (Includes Avebury, Silbury Hill, Sanctuary, Stonehenge etc.. etc..)

(Map of the Extended Salisbury Complex)

The area Windmill Hill Henge, West Kennet and the Stonehenge Cursus all gave radiocarbon dates of around 3,500 BC. Avebury began at around 3,000 BC, and the first phase of Silbury Hill came a couple of hundred years later at around 2,750 ±95 BC. The significance of the location lies in its latitude, (51° 25' 40'' N, both 1/7th the circumference of a circle and 4/7th's of 90°). The monuments around Avebury can be viewed as the Northern part of a super complex which includes Stonehenge, Durrington Walls, Woodhenge and the Cursus.

It is a curious fact that Stonehenge and the Sanctuary are separated by exactly 1/4 of a degree of latitude, and both lie on the same line of longitude. The incorporation of such an earthly measurement into two contemporary sites (The Sanctuary being the start-point of the Avebury avenues, and Stonehenge being at the end of the Southern avenue leading from the River Avon.  The separation of other prominent megaliths from these two points by units of degrees, opens the debate that this location was chosen to represent a prehistoric meridian.

(More about the Salisbury Complex)



The Boyne Valley complex, Ireland. (Includes: Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth)

(Map of the Boyne Valley Complex)

The radiocarbon dates for the construction and use of Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth span nearly half a millennium: (3,500 - 3,000 BC). As Ireland was already populated by Neolithic passage-mound builders (such as Carrowmore c. 4,600 BC), the specific astronomical nature of these three mounds suggest that cumulative knowledge and long term planning lie behind the layout of this ritual centre, most probably dating back long before the construction of the three major tombs. The Boyne-valley complex is intervisible with other prominent megalithic sites such as: Tara Hill, Loughcrew and Four-knocks.

The site-to-site bearing from the Avebury complex to Tara Hill, Ireland is 360/7. In addition, Ireland shares another important geodetic relationship with Avebury, which is that both the Newgrange and Avebury complexes possess identically-sized stone circles of 103m (As does the ring of Brodgar on the Orkneys).

(More about the Boyne Valley)



The Carnac complex, France. (Includes Le Grande Menhir Brise, Table Des Marchands, Er lannic, Gavrinis).

(Map of Carnac Complex)

The concentration of Megaliths at Carnac and the surrounding area are considered the greatest in all Europe. The region shows several specific periods of activity, starting slightly earlier than the British counterparts with the first at around 5,000 - 4,500 BC (Kercado 4,700 BC), when several large monuments were erected such as the Kercado passage mound and the Dol de Breton alignment for example. Noticeably, at around 3,300 -3,100 BC the region experienced a wave of construction which included the re-use of existing monuments (i.e. The cap-stones for the Table-des-Marchands, Gavr'inis and Er-Lannic tumulii (c. 3,300 - 3,100 BC), are all parts of an original menhir from the Grande Menhir construction). The new constructions show several specific similarities with those built at the same time in the Boyne Valley and on the Orkneys.

(More about the Locmariaquer Menhirs)



The Evora complex, Portugal. (Includes Zambujeiro, Almendres, Gruta da Escoural).

(Map of Evora Complex)

Home to the oldest stone circles in western Europe, one of the most spectacular passage mounds, and numerous other sites dating back to the Mesolithic, this region of Portugal is now being called the 'Mesopotamia of Iberia'. The Almendres stone circle shows different  stages of development through the 4th to 5th millennium BC.

The latitude of Evora has an astronomical significance in that there are only two latitudes at which the Moon's maximum declination is the same as the latitude (meaning that at its maximum elongation it goes through the zenith - directly overhead). These two latitudes are 38˚ 33' N (Almendres), and 51° 10' N (Stonehenge).

(More about the Evora complex)



The Maltese complex. (Includes Ggantija, Tarxien, Hypogeum, Hagar Qim).

(Map of Maltese Megaliths)

The Island of Malta served as a prehistoric complex for Earth-mother worship for well over a thousand years. The isolatory nature of the island has made it a 'Petrie dish' of prehistoric life for researchers. Regardless of this apparent isolation, the island retained a constant association with a form of Earth-mother worship, as reflected in the numerous female figurines and the rounded, almost anthropomorphic shapes of the temples themselves. 

The main temple building phase on Malta was from around 3,500 - 3,000 BC, as at the other complexes above. There are several examples of twinned temples, of especial interest is the Ggantija - Zhagra pairing on Gozo.

It is noticeable that the temples are represented as being covered over, which, when combined with the internal cruciform design and presence of libation bowls, draws a remarkable with the western European passage mounds.

(More about the Malta)




   Chronology of Construction:

Having identified the most significant concentrations of western European megaliths, and their contemporary development, there are several features in general that can be seen to be common amongst them. Primarily, a route can be traced along the western Atlantic coast from Portugal northwards past France, Ireland and England to Scotland's most northerly point. In addition, 'Grooved ware' pottery has been found at the Orkneys (4), Avebury/Silbury (4), and the Boyne Valley, at Knowth (7) and is 'almost always found in the contexts of large henges or circles' (4).

We are left here with the first inklings of an idea that these complexes all appear to result from the same wave of immigration, presumably by the 'Grooved-Ware people', as they are commonly called today.

Although all of the above complexes show a similar construction phase at around c. 3,100 BC and again at 2,500 BC, many of the locations were already in use long before that particular period of time - which reveals another interesting fact about these sites which is that following the Neolithic construction phase, they appear to have been used for a short period of time only, following which, many appear to have been effectively abandoned. This pattern of development is in contrast to the middle-eastern sites which show a prolonged growth from township to city state etc, which brings into question the ultimate purpose of these sites.



   The Complex and its Place in the Living Landscape:

One of the most recognisable things about these complexes is the way in which they were so sensitively built into the landscape. They were built in such a way as to enter the 'living' landscape, converting it into both a ceremonial and spiritual arena..

The apparently random placement of these complexes is put into question when one begins to look at the landscape features surrounding the monuments, and the placement of the complexes within their settings. On the Orkneys, for example, the ever present Hills of Hoy were used as a marker in a 'living sundial', behind which the setting-sun marked the time of year like clockwork.

The mound of Silbury hill, which has been dug and dug and dug again, has revealed no incarnation and therefore, as yet, has resisted a logical explanation for its presence. In the centre of the structure, recent archaeology (2008), has determined the presence of an earlier mound, suggesting that the mound itself may be the only purpose of the structure. It is here we can begin to see the idea of a symbolic representation of the 'Primal Hill of creation', being built into a ceremonial landscape, which although being the largest of its kind in Europe, appears almost hidden into the folding  landscape which includes Avebury, the Sanctuary, and several other local monuments (with no inter-visibility between them except perhaps from Wodin Hill).


silbury hill - hidden in the landscape.

The remains of ceremonial pathways and other constructions however (i.e. Windmill hill 3,350 BC, West Kennet c.3,500 BC), testify to the fact that this complex of sites was both connected physically and were used together in some capacity even before Avebury and Silbury hill (as we see them today) were built. In this respect, these structures can be seen as a response to a perpetually developing sacred landscape. Note for example, that the top of Silbury hill is at the same level as what would have been a pre-existing West-kennet long-barrow.

At all of the complexes mentioned, it appears that water played an important part in their placement. This statement, while seeming apparently obvious, should not be disregarded out of hand as the presence of several natural springs at the very base of Silbury hill for example, suggests that the mound may have been deliberately constructed so as to be permanently surrounded by water, again suggestive of a symbolic representation of the 'mound of creation' emerging from the 'watery chaos' of our mythological past. While this particular feature is not observed as obviously at all of the sites above, there certainly seems to be a connection which deserves consideration.

In is interesting to see in this projection of a 5m rise in the water level of the nearby River Kennet transforms the look of the complex completely, showing Silbury hill surrounded and the ditch surrounding Avebury potentially being filled with water - providing a possible reason for the larger outer bank, unusual in British henges.




   Primal Mounds and Stone Circles:

It has been observed that several of the largest mounds in UK are often accompanied with the presence of a prominent stone-circle. The mound is compared to the 'mound of creation, while the stone circle is commonly associated with astronomy. Often there are two circles present. In terms of construction, the Primal mound is represented in the form of passage-mounds. In this respect, passage mounds can be seen to create a portal between the Earth Mother and the Solar deity, through which we can witness the 'beating heart of the universe'.

Physical entrance to the internal chambers  of passage mounds invariably requires the visitor to crouch, stoop or even crawl.. until one enters the central chamber which is also usually raised high enough for one to stand again.

Passage mounds share a close analogy with the female form - not just in the not just in the rounded shape of the mound itself, but more through the way in which the mound operates with its environment, namely in allowing the sun to penetrate its inner chambers once a year... particularly delicately and sensitively in the case of Newgrange. The internal chambers are often cruciform, almost appearing in the female form itself in the Maltese temples.

(More about Passage-mounds)


The Gavr'inis passage mound at Lochmariaquer, France is now permanently surrounded by water, and arguably always was - as the bay is believed to have became flooded at around 5,000 BC. This spectacular passage mound, contains what is considered some of the finest examples of European Neolithic art on its internal stones. It also was constructed around 3,100 BC, and shows specific design and construction similarities with the passage mounds at the other European complexes such as Newgrange and Maes-howe.

Er-Lannic, lochmariaquer, France.

Directly in front of Gavr'inis passage mound is a tiny island (which would have been connected in prehistory) with a menhir on its crown. Just out of sight, and partially submerged, are the remains of the Er-Lannic twin stone circles. Once again, whether by chance or purpose, we are offered another variation on the mound-circle theme that appears common to all complexes. 

(More about Gavr'inis)



At the Orkneys complex, The circles of Brodgar, Stennes and the Maes-Howe mound, we are offered the perfect example of this union between mound and circle.  In the case of the Orkneys complex, the sites were positioned so as to combine with the 'living' landscape within which they were set, at the same time connecting with the cycles of the sun and moon.

Maes Howe was positioned and orientated to receive the setting sun for just several minutes of  each year.

The whole complex is surrounded by water, and a land-bridge connects the two stone circles together.

There are clear parallels between the Orkneys and the megalithic concentration in the area of Wiltshire, where we find that the dominance of the Avebury stone circle is mirrored in Brodgar, with a similar parallel between Silbury Hill and Maes Howe – although the parallel is in appearance alone, namely that of a conical mound symbolising the 'Hill of creation'. However, this is not the only connection. As early as forty years ago, another link was made between the two areas, because both contained a type of pottery known as “Grooved Ware”. This same pottery has since been found at other Neolithic sites and can now be identified as originating from the same cultural source.


Avebury/Silbury: The Classic Mound/Circle.

The Avebury/Silbury complex also offers a classic example of mound and circle. Both are the largest examples of their kind and were clearly intended to be the most representative example of Mound/Circle in southern Britain. Both Avebury and Silbury hill were (arguably) surrounded by water in prehistoric times. It is suggested that Sibury hill was deliberately built in such a way that it was always surrounded by spring water. The western edge of Silbury lies directly north of the eastern  edge of the Avebury Henge. Although the West-Kennet and Beckhampton Avenues appear to direct traffic around Silbury Hill and not to it, there is no doubt that it was a vital component of the sacred landscape.

Perhaps significantly, Michael Giles argues that Silbury hill was built to represent an immense pregnant earth-mother figure. He cites references which suggest that the earth-mother figure was built into the shape of other constructions at both the Orkneys and Malta. 

(More about Silbury Hill)


Other European complexes show the same symbolic combination of mound and circle, although local variations apply:

At the Boyne Valley, the two structures were combined in the same central monument, Newgrange.

At Evora in Portugal, the twin circles of Almendres and the Zambujeiro passage mound would have dominated the prehistoric landscape.

Malta has several examples of twinned temples, but on Gozo, the temples of Ggantija stand only hundreds of yards from the Xaghra stone circle, with its underground burial chambers.





   Other Similarities Between Complexes:

There are several connections between these sites which suggest that they performed similar functions and that a close cultural connection existed between the builders of these apparently separate complexes. It is through these cultural similarities that we can perhaps begin to understand the motivation behind so many  'civil-scale' building projects.


Spiral Art: Cross-cultural similarities.

It is now common knowledge that the 'Temples' on Malta were designed and constructed  (at least in part), so as to capture a beam of sunlight at specific times of the year, amplifying its importance upon the holiest of holies deep within the structures. The temples are invariably orientated to important parts of the solar year, such as the solstices and equinoxes. Their internal design, whilst being more rounded, conforms to the 'cruciform' design found in passage mounds across western Europe, making them variants of each other (This same design feature was noted by Sir N. Lockyer in relation to the pyramids and temples of Egypt). In addition, huge stone-cut libation bowls were found at the Tarxien, similar to those found in the passage mounds of the Boyne Valley. Associated with both sites is a prevalence of spiral-art, the significance of which can still only be guessed at.

This stone is from Bugibba temple on Malta.

Tarxien, Malta. Spiral art.

And this is one of a pair of similar stones in the Tarxien.

Although there is no suggestion of a direct contact, there are nevertheless striking similarities between the Maltese spiral art, and that of the Boyne Valley and Orkneys Neolithic communities as the following examples illustrate.

(More about prehistoric Malta)

Newgrange: The inscribed kerb-stone that lies directly in front of the entrance to the Newgrange passage mound has the triple spiral on the left hand side (also seen on the wall inside the chamber). Almost identical art has been found on the Orkneys, and variations of it can be seen throughout the ancient world.

Spiral kerbstone from Newgrange.

Orkneys, Scotland: A rare piece of Neolithic art was found on a beach by an Orkney plumber :

The 6,000-year-old relic, thought to be a fragment from a larger piece, was left exposed by storms. Local plumber David Barnes, who found the stone on the beach in Sandwick Bay, South Ronaldsay, said circular markings had shown up in the late-afternoon winter sun, drawing his attention to the piece.

Archaeologists last night heralded the discovery as a "once-in-50-years event". But they warned that a search for other fragments in the area would be hampered by a lack of funds.  Archaeologists compared the discovery to the Westray Stone (below), a Neolithic carved stone discovered in 1981 during routine quarrying work. It has been in Orkney Museum for more than 25 years but is due to be returned to the area this week and exhibited in the new Westray Heritage Centre in Pierowall.

The 'Westray Stone', from Pierowall (left). The Eday Manse stone, Isle of Eday. (right).

The Westray Stone, Orkneys.

The Westray Stone was once part of a Neolithic chambered cairn which is thought to have been destroyed in prehistory. A second part, and two smaller carved pieces, were found the following spring in a dig led by Niall Sharples, of the University of Cardiff.

"The stone is perhaps from a chambered tomb and could be as old as 5,000 or 6,000 years, and would have possibly been used as a ceremonial, sacred object. This is art made in the same style as art from the Newgrange stone tomb in Ireland or tombs in Brittany. It's part of this Neolithic world linked by the Irish Sea." 

The stone will now be passed to Orkney Museum and brought to the attention of the Queen and Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer to determine if it is a treasure trove or not. Ancient objects without an owner are automatically property of the Crown. But Mrs Gibson added: "An object like this becomes the property of everyone."

Ref: ( 



This beautiful mace-head (right), was found at Knowth. The flint itself comes from the Orkney islands, which are by no means the nearest source of flint to the Boyne valley. It is one of several clues that testify to a cultural exchange between these two important megalithic complexes, along with the style of art, exterior and interior similarities in design of the passage mounds (Maes Howe) and a strong astronomical theme underlying the development of the structures. 




Having identified cultural connections existed between complexes, we now turn to their locations. We have already noted that the locations of the Orkneys, Avebury/Stonehenge and Evora complexes all have an astronomical relevance, but can it be that they were chosen because of this, and if so, are there any others?



   Geodesy, Astronomy and the European Megaliths:

It is impossible to hide from the fact that some of these sites appear to show a geodetic relationship to each other, a relationship which is strengthened by the astronomical significance of the locations of several of these complexes. But does this mean that they were selected because of this significance.?

It is a fact that at least three of the complexes listed above were located at latitudes of astronomical relevance. This is not something to be ignored as it is clear that astronomy was a primary concern of the Neolithic builders.


Associated Astro-religious belief systems.

In order for one to observe the celestial sky accurately, one needs to choose a site with appropriate views of the heavens, a fact which can be seen repeated in many of the smaller megaliths (for example, the RSC's of Scotland have been invariably shown to be orientated towards important phases of the lunar cycle). However, there are also locations upon this planet, at which the celestial cycles can be measured more accurately than at others.  For example, in Egypt, it was noticed that on the 23.5° latitude, close to the Nabta stone circle c. 4,000 BC, that there was no shadow during the equinoxes. This simple observation can be seen to be a natural intellectual trigger for further astronomical knowledge, and was most likely the reason for the construction of this particular complex at the specific location we find it.

Extending this line of thought to Europe, we find that there are only two latitudes at which, in some nights of the year, you get the full moon on the zenith. The first is 38° 33′ 28″, the location of the Evora complex (and the oldest astronomically orientated stone circle in Europe), while the other latitude is 51° 10' 42" N, that of Stonehenge. Should we consider it a coincidence that at these very two latitudes, we find two of the largest, earliest and most prominent stone circles on the European arena.

The idea that Stonehenge was situated astronomically (or geodetically) is not one which sits comfortably with historians as there is good evidence for use of the site from at least 3,500 BC (in the nearby Cursus), not forgetting the stubborn presence of the four tree-posts, which date back to Mesolithic period 7,000 BC. However, in favour of its deliberate and specific placement is the fact that it is at this latitude only the sun and the moon have their maximum setting points at 90° to each other. Perhaps it is through these astronomical facts we this we can begin to understand the Avebury/Silbury complex better, for the latitude of Avebury (Which sits exactly 1/4 of a degree of latitude north of Stonehenge), also has a mathematical significance (and one which should also not be ignored out of hand). Avebury is located on latitude  51° 25' 40'', which is the result of 360 divided by 7 as seen in the following expression.

(360° / 7 = 51.428 or 51° 25' 40")

We can see the same type of Geodesy was applied to Egyptian structures (i.e. Karnak/Thebes), which was the sacred centre of 'upper' Egypt was built  at latitude 25° 43' N, (360 / 14), and of course Heliopolis, which the sacred centre of 'Lower' Egypt was built on the 30th latitude. Sacred Temples built in upper Egypt are orientated to the solstices while those built in lower' Egypt (the pyramids), were orientated to the equinoxes.

Karnak/Thebes (360° / 14 =  or 25° 43'), Heliopolis (360° / 12 = 30)

It is perhaps also worth noting that while the exterior angle of the Great pyramid is the same as the latitude of Silbury Hill, the exterior angle of Silbury is simultaneously mirrored in the latitude of the Great pyramid. Something which can be seen to follow through to other pyramids and latitudes..

Returning to the Orkneys complex, we find it also has a strong astronomical significance. It is at the latitude of the Orkneys that the major lunar standstills north becomes almost circumpolar, (neither rising nor setting - with the effect that the moon 'rolls' along the horizon). Because the Earth’s axial tilt has changed by nearly half a degree since the majority of the stone circles were built, this effect is no longer accurate and the latitude today would have to be 63° north for a lunar standstill north to be truly circumpolar (3), while a truly circumpolar Moon would have been visible on the Orkneys at around 3,500 BC. Once again, we are presented with a clear reason for the presence of this concentration of astronomically profound Megaliths on such a desolate island group.

The sites Almendres stone circle near Evora shares an intimate connection with Stonehenge, in that it is located on the correct latitude so that on certain nights over an 18.6 year cycle, the full moon can be seen on the zenith. The close proximity of the great Zambujeiro passage mound, which is by far the largest in Iberia, and which ranks as one of the best in all Europe, marks the region out as having a special significance to the Neolithic builders. The close association between astronomy and the megalithic structures is demonstrated by connections both at sites, and between them.

Cromleque dos Almendres: Apart from being orientated to mark the Equinoxes, a line from the upper edge of the circle to the nearby Menhir dos Almendres, follows the same path as the winter solstice sun. It is also suggested that the number of stones in the original circle (91) may have been used to measure the number of days between solstices (182).

Zambujeiro passage mound - The spectacular passage mound of Zambujeiro, the largest in all Iberia, has unfortunately suffered the ravages of time, but in doing so, the interior structure has been revealed in a unique way, allowing us to witness the true vastness of the structure. The passage has a slight curve and a stone pillar slightly blocking the entrance to the inner chamber. Both of these features are seen in other European passage mounds where they were used to highlight the sun on the winter solstice. The passage is orientated approx 20° off true East (110°).

Both of the above sites, (Almendres and Zambujeiro) are part of an alignment which terminates at the Xarez stone 'quadrangle', near Monsaraz. This alignment follows the path of the spring moon. It also raises questions about the function of such stone 'Quadrangles'.

(More about the Almendres-Xarez alignment)

(More about Stone Quadrangles)


A Geodetic Relationship between Complexes..?

Although the complexes appear randomly situated, several are related by complete units of degrees of latitude.


Geodetic connections between complexes.

Maes Howe 58° 59' 56" N, 3° 11' 20" E.

 Positioned due to Lunar phenomena (See above)

Newgrange 53° 41' 40" N 6° 28' 30" W Inter-visible with Tara Hill, (Sacred heart of Ireland)
Tara Hill 53° 35' N,  6° 36' W (6° N, 3.5° W of Carnac), (15° N, 1.5° E of Evora)
Avebury/Silbury 51° 25' 40'' N 01° 51' 6" W (Latitude 360/7), (St. Michael's Ley)
Carnac 47° 35' 52" N 03° 3' 47" W (9° N, 5° E of Evora), (6° S, 3.5° E Tara Hill)
Evora 38° 33′ 28″ N 08° 3′ 41″ W (9° S and 5° W of Carnac), (15° S, 1.5° W of Tara Hill)

Note: Sites that show separated by units of 1° (accurate within 3' of a degree or  95%)

Additional Sites.

Callanish 58° 12' 12" N 6° 45' 25" W (7° N, 4° W G'bury), (7° N, 5° W S'henge), (5° N, 2.5° W B.C.Ddu)
Bryn Celli Ddu 53° 12' 30" N. 4° 14' 20" W (5° S, 2.5° E Callanish), (2° N, 1.5° E G'bury)
Arbor Low 53° 10' N, 01° 46' W (2° N, 1° E G'bury), (5° S, 5° E Callanish), (same lat, 2.5° E B.C.Ddu)
Stonehenge 51° 10' 42" N, 01° 49.4' W. (0.25° S of Avebury), (7° S, 5° E Callanish)
Glastonbury 51° 09' N 2° 45' W (7° S, 4° E Callanish), (2° S, 1.5° W B.C.Ddu),


(Prehistoric British Geodesy)    (Prehistoric Egyptian Geodesy)

(Prehistoric Geometric alignments)


4). T. Garnham. Lines on the Landscape, Circles in the Sky. 2004. Tempus.
7). Eogan, George. Roche, Helen. 'Grooved ware wooden structure at Knowth, Boyne Valley Ireland'. Antiquity. June. 1994.


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