The Great Puzzle of Giza - (Appendices)

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 Appendix A. The Great Pyramid of Giza: Physical Statistics: Location - Latitude 29° 58' 51" N 31 º09 '00 E. (1) The four faces are not entirely flat. They are concave by a yard deep at the centre.(13),(4). Average angle of face - 51° 51' (2), 51º 51' 14.3" (1) The sides originally measured 755 ft each. (3), 755ft 9.1374 in (1) The length of the sides divided by the width of the casing stones = 365. Present orientation of N-S axis - 0º 05' 16" west of true north (1) The height was originally 481.3949 ft. (3), 481ft 1.59 in (1), The sum distance around the base divided by the height equals 2Pi. The apex is 22ft square currently. Estimated at 203 Courses high. (200 with a large capstone?) The 35th course has significantly larger stones and is 1/5th of the way up. (4) The height has a relation to the circumference incorporating 'Pi'. The base of the pyramid is perfectly level (accepting a tolerance of 1 part in 10,000). (2). The base of the pyramid is perfectly square (accepting a tolerance of 1 part in 7,000). (2). The base of the pyramid is cardinally aligned (accepting a tolerance of 1 part in 6,000). (2). The three tomb chambers line up when the pyramids are viewed in profile. The great pyramid is the only one with an elevated passage or 'star shafts'. Descending passage - 26°31' (2), 26º 18' 9.7" (1) Ascending passage - 26°02' (2), 26º 18' 9.7" (1) Kings Chamber Northern star shaft - 32°28' (2) Kings Chamber southern star shaft - recent laser measurements suggest 45°14'. (2). Kings chamber dimensions embody 3:4:5 triangle Kings coffer volume of interior (1166.4 litres) is exactly half volume of exterior. The walls of the chamber are made of pink Aswan granite. The 'sarcophagus' is made of Aswan red granite. The red-granite coffer shows evidence of saw marks on the exterior and 'core-drilling', on the interior. Queens chamber Northern shaft - 39°00' (2). Found in 1872 by Waynman Dixon. (1) Queens chamber Southern star shaft - 39°30' (2). Found in 1872 by Waynman Dixon.(1) The Queens Chamber shafts were uncut for their last 5 inches. The Northern entrance is on the nineteenth course, (possibly lunar cycle). It aligns to the pole star Alpha Draconis at 2,400 BC (1). (and at 3,350 BC) (23). The Kings chamber and three Granite Plugs come from Syene (Aswan), 500 miles south. Composed of approximately 2,300,000 blocks of limestone weighing an average of 2.5 tonnes each. (3 from petrie) The dimensions of the pyramid are a scale (1:43,200) representation of the northern hemisphere of the Earth. The layout of the pyramids directly reflects the layout of the stars in Orion's belt. (See Teotihuacan). The Valley temple beside the sphinx is built from blocks ranging from 50 to 200 tonnes apiece. The largest stone weighs over 400 tonnes. (Return to Top)

Appendix C

 Greek Texts. 430 BC -  Herodotus.  56 BC -  Diodorus Siculus.  24 BC -  Strabo. 20 AD -   Pliny. Arabian Texts. 225 A.H. (836 AD) - Papyrus of Abou Hormeis. 956 AD - Masoudi. 992 AD - Murtadi. Makrizi - Died 845 A.H. ( = 1506 AD ?) European Texts.          1800 AD - Coutelle (from Napoleon's expedition). 1839 - Birch's analysis of Perrings "Pyramids of Ghiza". 1882 - W. M .Flinders Petrie. 1909 - John and Morton Edgar. 1992-Present: Gantenbrink Project.

 Strabo c. 24 BC. (Extract from (16). Taken from 'The geography of Strabo' (Trans. By H. L. Jones) (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons) Vol. III, p. 84-5). On proceeding forty stadia from the city, one comes to a kind of mountain-brow; on it are numerous pyramids, the tombs of kings, of which three are noteworthy; and two of these are even numbered among the seven wonders of the world, for they are a stadium in height, are quadrangular in shape, and their height is a little greater than the length of each of the sides; and one of them is only a little larger than the other. High up, approximately midway between the sides, it has a movable stone, and when raised up there is a sloping passage to the vault. Now these pyramids are near one another and on the same level; but further on, at a greater height of the hill, is the third, which is much smaller than the two, though constructed at much greater expense; for from the foundation almost to the middle it is made of black stone, the stone from which mortars are made, being brough from a great distance, for it is brought from the mountains of Aetheopia; and because of its being hard and difficult to work into shape it rendered the undertaking very expensive. It is called 'Tomb of the courtesan', having been built by her lovers the courtesan whom Sappho the Melic poetess calls Doricha, the beloved of Sappho's brother Charaxus, who was engaged in transporting lesbian wine to Naucratis for sale, but others give her the name Rhodopis. They tell the fabulous story that, when she was bathing, an eagle snatched one of her sandals from her maid and carried it to Memphis; and while the king was administering justice in the open air, the eagle, when it arrived above his head, flung the sandal into his lap; and the king, stirred both by the beautiful shape of the sandal and by the strangeness of the occurrence, sent men in all directions into the country in quest of the woman who wore the sandal; and when she was founding the city of Naucratis, she was brought up to Memphis, became the wife of the king, and when she died was honoured with the above mentioned tomb. The section concerning the 'moveable stone' has been variously translated. The following is a modern translation (ref lost), which supports the idea that the stone 'door' was a similar mechanism as that found in the 'South pyramid of Dashur' (See Petrie). "The Greater (Pyramid), a little way up one side, has a stone that may be taken out , (exairesimon, exemptilem) which being raised up (arqentoV, sublato) there is a sloping passage to the foundations."

 Birch-Analysis from Perrings "Pyramids of Gizeh" from 1839.

 Extracts from Gantenbrink ``` (The Upnaut Project - WWW.Cheops.Org)`````` - ``` ```Both the upper shafts have bends in their North-South axis. About 19 meters up the lower northern shaft, reaching a long metal rod left behind by the 19th century Waynman Dixon expedition.  We verified in 1992, that the upper southern shaft emerges on the exterior at the 101st layer, the upper northern shaft at the 102nd layer. ``` On the Kings Northern - It appears that it was 'robbed' and a tunnel was dug from outside. At Block No. 2 the shaft angles upward and simultaneously bends to the West. From Block No. 2 up to the beginning of Block No. 5, the block floors have been almost completely destroyed. In 1817 Capt. Caviglia dug open this section from below to form a tunnel which follows the bends and angle changes of the shaft. Two interesting conclusions can be drawn from the shaft bends and changes in angle of ascent: 1. Until 1993, when we discovered that the lower northern shaft also bends to avoid the Great Gallery, it was generally assumed that the bends in the upper northern shaft were simply the result of a planning mistake made by the pyramid builders. In other words, not until actual construction was underway did the builders supposedly realize that extension of the upper northern shaft conflicted with the Great Gallery. Based on our present knowledge, this assumption no longer makes sense. The northern shafts' structural conflict with the Great Gallery was obvious to the builders much farther below, during construction of the shafts emanating from the Queen's Chamber. Based on the experience gained there, the builders could have shifted the King's Chamber shaft inlets farther to the West, in order to correct their "planning mistake" without great effort. Instead, the builders repeated the conflict situation, a fact which again cost them immense time and energy.``` ```There is only one reasonable answer to this apparent dilemma: the position of the shaft inlets in the chambers was critically linked to an exact spot, so no shifting of the inlets could be tolerated. 2. The master builders of ancient Egypt were totally out of their element when it came to constructing this shaft sequence. In a 1997 lecture I outlined the limited conditions under which they were capable of applying the principle of angle bisection. For instance, they did so with great precision in the roof constructions of the King's and Queen's chambers, as well as at the original pyramid entrance. But apparently they didn't have even a vague notion of how to apply this principle to building the shafts. The end of one block was cut at a right angle, to which the end of the next block was simply adapted. For this reason the shaft width fluctuates considerably, in some cases reaching only two-thirds of the average value.  Block No. 23, measuring 4.37 meters, is the longest we found during our investigation. Its ceiling is partially unfinished.``` ```The ceiling of Block No. 24 is also unfinished.``` ```From the end of Block No. 25 to Block No. 32, where it emerges on the pyramid exterior, the shaft runs through a tunnel dug by unknown plunderers. The digging of this tunnel, which we came to refer to as the "Mankiller", completely destroyed the ceiling and east wall of the shaft. The west wall, still intact along the entire length of the tunnel, displays no special features. Thus, an arrangement of niches of the kind we discovered in the upper southern shaft cannot have existed here, otherwise we would have found at least some trace of a recess in the undamaged west wall. On the Kings Southern - Like all the other wall stones of the King's Chamber, Block No. 1 is granite. At this inlet point, the shaft is made up of three blocks. Early treasure hunters dug a round tunnel into the block above the shaft itself .At the beginning of Block No. 2 the shaft inclines at an angle of 39.20° (manually measured). This segment of the shaft is nearly round in cross-section and seems to have been enlarged after its initial construction, probably by the same treasure hunters mentioned above. Block five is an example of inferior workmanship, what we refer to as a "Monday morning block." Block No. 5 was almost certainly inserted without authorization from the architect or master builder. The discovery of a number of such unfinished blocks in both upper shafts and in the lower southern shaft as well would seem to indicate that the "shaft builders" made up a separate working group. This group apparently lagged behind at times, pressured by the rapid rate of growth of the pyramid layers and the construction of the chambers. This would also explain the extreme angle fluctuations in the vicinity of the King's Chamber. Between Block No. 15 and 16 we discovered a vertical joint. In the shafts such joints, which have a distinct static function, otherwise occur only proximate to the chambers. It is a complete anomaly to find a vertical joint fully isolated in the nucleus of the pyramid. Since it requires much greater effort to shape and fit the blocks in such an arrangement, we can assume that the builders must have had significant structural justification for going to the trouble of deflecting forces into the horizontal plane. This vertical joint is located about 12 meters above a point in the lower southern shaft which is subject to extraordinary static influences. The overall static's in this area seem to differ from those in the other shaft segments. For a construction engineer this is a significant clue to the possible existence of an as yet undiscovered structure in the vicinity of these static anomalies. At the end of Block No. 17 the shaft bends slightly to the east. In both shaft walls at the end of Block No. 23,  we discovered an arrangement of niches whose function remains unknown. The upper butt joint of Block No. 23 is also unusual, in that it forms a rectangular concave profile. It is also remarkable that here the floor joint is aligned with the shaft joints. On the Queens No```rthern `````` - Based on 14 measurements made over a distance of 17 meters, the shaft's angle of ascent fluctuates between 33.3° and 40.1°. Block No. 4 clearly shows that a change in the angle was made at this point. To that end, the builders even cut the shaft 2 cm deep into the beginning of the floor block. At the start of Block No. 7  (About 19m), we see the threaded end of a hexagonal iron rod. The extreme angle fluctuations and the changes made to Block No. 4 would seem to indicate that, at this point, the ancient Egyptians ran into a conflict with the Great Gallery, which was being constructed at the same time, and thus were unable to adhere exactly to the originally intended shaft angle. In the second third of Block No. 9, between the iron rod and the east wall of the shaft, in an accumulation of dark, undefined material, lies a small rectangular object. The object seems to have two holes drilled in it. At the end of Block No. 9, the shaft angles about 45° to the West, in order to avoid the static structure of the Great Gallery. It is at this point that Dixon's iron rod, which is bent around the angle, apparently got stuck. ``` On the Queens Southern - Between Block No. 2 and No. 3 we discovered settling of 3 to 4 centimetres, almost certainly resulting from the pressure exerted by the roof beams of the Queen's Chamber. The lower northern shaft displays similar settling, though there it is distributed along the course of three blocks.``` ```The first three joints of the shaft are vertical, to deflect the pressure of the roof beams into the horizontal plane.``` ```Block No. 8 has an unusually irregular surface. This riddle is solved by Block No. 9, one wall and the ceiling of which are rough. But the western wall is relatively smooth and shows signs of having been worked with a chipping chisel. Apparently the ancient Egyptian builders first initially shaped the shaft blocks with a pointed chisel, which explains the uneven surface, and then dressed them with a chipping chisel. Blocks No. 8 and 9 were evidently built into the structure in unfinished form. In 1992 we also found three unfinished  blocks in the upper shafts.``` ```Blocks No. 16 and 17 are offset by about 3 to 4 centimetres. It is impossible to determine with any certainty whether this deviation occurred during original construction or at a later date. This spot lies just under the floor level of the King's Chamber, where Petrie discovered unusual settling. (PETRIE, W.M.F., "Ten Years Digging in Egypt", New York, s.d.) It is possible that this settling, and the observed deviations were caused by an earthquake during the pyramid's construction. Because of the shift we can see an original red marking line of the builders. Based on the grooves found in the shaft, it is a reasonable assumption that before their insertion as floor slabs, these blocks served as a base for the cutting of precision joints. his gives rise to a crucial question: exactly which precision joints were cut here```? (The scratches on either side of the tunnel appear to run to the top).``` The shaft blocks themselves were only dressed with the chisel. We observed ample evidence of this in the Caviglia Tunnel, on the lower sides of the shaft blocks, as well as at several sites of block displacement, which exposed the abutting edges. At the upper southern shaft outlet, both outer sides of the blocks are visible. These, too, were worked only with the chisel. Thus, as 9 of a total of 10 surfaces of a shaft block were definitely chiseled, we can well assume that the shafts were constructed without recourse to sawing. The pyramid's corridor and chamber system, which also displays precise, cut joints, had been completed long before this shaft construction level was reached. Taken together, these findings constitute a compelling case for a possible, as yet undiscovered structure - for which precision joints where made - in this upper region of the southern, Queen's Chamber shaft. Block No. 27 is partially polished. At the end of Block No. 28, the shaft is closed by an unusual, smoothly polished stone. Between the closure stone and the shaft floor is a gap of 5 to 7 millimetres, which we determined by comparison with the diameter of Upuaut-2's laser beam. Thus, the visible lower edge of the stone does not lie totally flush with the floor. Close examination of the broken, lower right corner shows that it is held in place by a groove or recess, and that, at this point, the stone is only about 5 millimetres wider than the shaft itself. No traces of mortar are visible on the closure stone. This is unusual, as the joints of most shaft blocks do show such traces. We were able to recover bits of white gypsum mortar from the shaft, indicating that the shaft was indeed laid using mortar. But the closure stone was apparently mounted with great precision and held in place by grooves or recesses, without using mortar. Thus, we may well assume that the stone is, in some way or another, moveable. Traces of hammering carried out  are visible on the left fitting, at the point at which it emerges from the stone. This is an indication that the fitting was first pushed through the hole drilled in the stone, and then struck with a hammer, to bend it downward at a 90° angle. (Return to Top)

Appendix D.

Other Pyramid Statistics. (From North to South)

Abu Rawash (7.5 Km NE of Ghiza)

Djedefre (3). Reigned 8 yrs (5).

97m sq. The bottom layer of casing stones are granite. (5)

The tomb chamber is at the bottom of a wide shaft (return to 3rd kingdom style). (5)

Ramp 1 mile long, reaches the pyramid at 150m above Nile level. (5)

Ghiza (4th Dynasty Kings) - (Petrie found a piece of bowl inscribed ..nofru. (13)

Khufu, 'Horizon of Khufu' (Cheops).                 Height 146.6 m.             Angle 51° 50' 40" (3), 51° 52' (5)

6 ½ million tons (5)

Tura limestone casing. 1 corbelled chamber.

Quarry marks. A mason mark in 'Cambells' chamber translated as dating to 'year 17' of 'Khufus' reign (Ref:10).

The original entrance was positioned on the 17th course, 55 ft above the base and 24 ft from the centre (5).

3 Khufu satellite pyramids (G1 a,b,and c).

1 Dedicated to Queen Henutsen, Khufu's half sister, Meritetis, and Hetepheres, the mother of Khufu. (3) (Note that a rock-cut tomb was found at Giza that is also ascribed to Hetepheres - see below)

Khafre (Chefren).                                 Height 143.5 m.             Angle 52°20' (5)             216m. sq. (5)

Granite and limestone casing. Sealed with a 'number of jointed and cemented limestone plugs.

Descending passage angle 22°.

Same design roof in upper chamber as Khufu's 'Queens' chamber.

Hundreds of smashed pieces of figures of Khafre found at Giza (10). Attributed by Herodotus and Diodorus. 'The only monumental evidences are the pieces of a bowl and a mace head with his name found in the temple east of this pyramid' (Petrie, 11). Khafre statue in Valley-Temple.

Djefre's cartouche found in the roof slabs of the boat-pit. (5)

Lowest level of casing stones made of granite (5)

Menkaure (Mycerinus).                                    Height 65-66m.              Angle 51° 20'

Lowest 16 courses of casing stones are pink-granite, the rest limestone. Each face was 'flattened' in the bottom centre. (5)

3 portcullises (3).

Chisel marks suggest lower tunnel dug from inside. Remnants of plugging blocks and plaster on the wall. (3) Attributed to Menkaure by Herodotus and Diodorus. Attributed by Manetho to 'Nitakerti' or Men-ka-ra of the 6th dynasty. (13).

An inscription found by Reisner in the Mortuary temple and near the pyramid entrance leave 'no doubt' that it was completed by Shepseskhaf. (5)

Built more carefully than the other two, with better finished stones. (5)

Passage to celestial pole (5)

Mortuary temple, Causeway and Valley temple. (5)

The hurried 'completion' of the complex is apparent in the large mortuary and valley temples, constructed of enormous 200+ ton limestone blocks, finished off with the use of 'crude bricks and inferior materials' (5). (Change in casing stones also?)

3 Menkaure satellite pyramids (10).

The middle one has the name 'Menkaure' in red paint on the ceiling of a chamber.(11)

Queen Hetepheres. (Wife of Snofru, Mother of Khufu), suggested re-burial as no body (5)

32 metre shaft filled with stones. (5)

Tomb furniture. (5)

Alabaster sarcophagus, undisturbed and empty. (5)

Queen Khentkaues. Rock tomb. (Between the causeways of Khafre and Menkaure (5)

Similar to Shepseskaf, but smaller (5)

Described in the tomb as 'The mother of two kings' and 'Founder of the 5th dynasty' (5)

Zawyet El Aryan (2 Km S of Ghiza).

The southern 'Layer' Pyramid (2nd - 3rd Dyn).

Attributed to khaba (Abydoss list), by Reisner from surrounding mastabas (5)

14-Step pyramid, Base 83m sq. (5)

Buttress walls as Sekhemket, i.e. 5 cubits (2 1/2m), 2 per step. (5)

All chambers and passages cut from rock (5)

No sarcophagus (5).

North exit but not polar. (25)

32 compartments off surrounding passage. (25)

The Northern 'unfinished' Pyramid - Demolished. Attributed to a short lived 4th Dynasty King who probably ruled between Djedefre and Khafre. (About the same height as Khafre). Structural similarities (large trench), with the pyramid of Abu Rawash. (3)

Open pit type. Open ramp cut into rock. (25)

Bottom of pit paved with Granite blocks surrounded by limestone (4.5m high). (25)

Oval Granite sarcophagus sunk into pavement. (25) (As at Geeza ?)

Saqqara (20Km S of Ghiza. Includes 1st - 3rd, 5th, 6th, 9th and 10th Dynasty burials). Certain tombs of the same sovereigns have been found in Abydoss, and it is debated where the true burial places of these pharaohs was.

Djoser, Zoser (Horus Netcherykhet) 'step' pyramid.     Height 60m.       850,000 tons (5)

The Surrounding trench is in the shape of the letter 'h' (a groundplan for a house).

The result of 5 successive enlargements over an original Mastaba, which was made of solid stone and carefully dressed and planed. The alterations were as follows: (5)

1. 3m extension in all directions.
2. 8 1/2m extension on the East side. 11x33m shafts.
3. 3m extension in all directions.
4. 4-step pyramid.
5. Extension of the pyramid to N and W.
6. Addition of two more steps.

The Tomb chamber is located at the bottom of a 7m diameter, 28m deep shaft. It has two parts, one on top of the other and constructed of pink granite. Access to the lower part is via a 1m diameter hole, closed by a 3 ton, cork-shaped, stone stopper. Undisturbed and without a body.  (5)

A 33m vertical shaft was covered by one of the building extensions, within which were found 35,000 stone jars with the seals of all the proceeding dynasties (except the heretic Peribsen). (5)

Buttress walls. Unfired bricks. (3)

Perring discovered 60 mummies in 1837, in a large gallery under the pyramid. They turned out to be newly excavated Saite burials (5).

Masonry set horizontally for the original project, then curved courses for the later stages of development (25)

Uadji - The outer wall has bulls heads on plinth as at Chatal Huyak, Turkey. (pic ref:5)

Mastaba 'Fara' un', 'False pyramid' (Arabic). (Poss for 4th Dyn) Shepseskaf (5)

In the shape of large sarcophagus (5) House (25)

100m long, 72m wide, 20m high. (5)

Angle of external walls 65° (25)

Polar passage (23°) to burial chambers. (5)

Limestone casing above a granite step (25)

3 Granite portcullises (25)

Internal compartments completely lined with granite, in courses of one cubit in height. (25)

Sarcophagus chamber 'pent' roofed. (blocks cut to a curve to imitate a pointed vault). (25)

Mortuary temple, causeway, Valley temple. (5)

Pyramid of Teti.                                               Height 52.5m                 Angle 53° 7' 48"

Pyramid Texts. 3 granite-girdle stones. (3)

Satellite pyramid of Teti.

Pyramid of Queen Iput

Pyramid of Queen Kawit (Khuit). (3)

Userkaf. (5th Dynasty). (Cardinally aligned.)          Height 49m.                   Angle 53° 7' 48"

Substructure built in the rock. (25)

Northern (polar?) passage (26° 35'), entirely lined and stopped up with blocks of granite. (25)

Two main limestone-lined and vaulted chambers. (25)

Small, plain basalt sarcophagus (25)

Granite portcullis (25)

Built with blocks of rough local limestone. (3)

Tura limestone casing. (3) No sign of Casing. (25)

Pyramid of Unas, (Last 5th Dynasty).                  Height 43m                    Angle 56° 18' 35"

Pyramid texts. Limestone casing 3 granite-girdle stones. (3)

Pyramid of Pepy I (6th Dynasty)                         Height 52.5m                 Angle 53° 7' 48"

Pyramid texts. Limestone casing. (3)

3 satellite pyramids of Seti I                            Height 21m

Belonged to his spouses. (3)

Pyramid of Djedkare Isesi.                               Height 52.5m                 Angle 53° 7' 48"

Pyramid of Merenre.                                        Height 52.5m                 Angle 53° 7' 48"

Mummy found. Pyramid texts. 3 granite-girdle stones. (3)

Pyramid of Pepy II.                                          Height 52.5m                 Angle 53° 7' 48"

Pyramids of Mazghuna.

Pyramid (attributed to King Merikara), (9th or 10th Dynasty)

Dashur (30km S of Ghiza). Remained a site of worship for well over 1000 years. Snofru's cult was still alive through the new kingdom. (5)

Bent Pyramid (Snefuru's Southern)     Height 105m (101m ref:5)            Angle 54° 27' 44" - 43° 22'. (54°14'46"-42°59'26" - Ref: 25)

Base 190m sq. (5)

Decree from Pepi I (6th Dynasty) exempting the priests of 'the two pyramids of Snofru' from certain taxes. (5)

The name of Snofru was found on the corner stones and in the upper chamber. (5)

Two styles of architecture, the bottom has inward sloping courses of masonry with large casing stones and the top has horizontal stones with small casing stones. (5) Upper part is poorer (25)

Built with limestone blocks, limestone casing. (3)

Celestial passage (26° 10' - Ref: 25), (pole star), and western passage (26° 36' - Ref: 25). (3)

Portcullises. Either chamber could be permanently sealed and the other kept open (5)

Angle changes 1/3rd of the way up. (5)

2 (3) corbelled chambers (5)

Two independent corbelled chambers, separated except by an 'irregular' shaft (25)

The Northern shaft leads to open pit cut in to the rock, later corbelled. (25)

The Western shaft leads to the upper chamber. It has two side-sliding portcullises, between which is the entrance to the irregular tunnel to the other chamber. The masonry in the chamber is better quality than that of the Northern chamber (25)

One of the portcullis' was in place and plastered on both sides. (25)

Mortuary temple to East and causeway adorned with art frescoes. (5)

3 ½ million tons of stone. (5)

When the pyramid was opened by Perring (?), a rush of air entered the chambers for two days which was so strong that 'the lights would with difficulty be kept in'. The W. entrance was still sealed at this time which suggests either a vacuum or another exit. (5)

The 'irregular' tunnel is slightly inclined, and a small recess was cut on the opposite side of the horizontal corridor. (5)

The papyrus cordages were found still hanging by Perring on the second portcullis. (25)

Bent Satellite pyramid.            ('Cult' pyramid)             Height 26m

Along the pyramid axis, on the south side, lies the 'cult' pyramid. Entrance at ground level. Entrance first descends then ascends and comes out in a small, corbel-vaulted chamber not quite 7 meters high. Many scholars consider this corridor to be the model for the grand gallery in knufu's pyramid. (Ref: pp181 pic.)

Subsidiary pyramid too small for burial. (5)

Red Pyramid (Snefuru's Northern)                   Height 104m                  Angle 43° 22' (43° 36')

An inscription found 'near' the Red pyramid mentions the 'two pyramids of Snofru'. (5)

Edwards found quarry marks on two 'blocks'; One from the base dated to' year 21' of Sneferu's reign, and one halfway up to 'year 22' ref:10. Lehner found quarry marks from the backs of two casing stones; one from the base, and one from about 30 courses up, show a difference of four years (10).

Supposedly the one used for burial (25)

3 Corbelled chambers, dressed limestone. (3)

limestone casing.

Celestial passage  27° 36' -Ref: 25) (5).

Chamber(s) partly filled with small square stone blocks. (5)

Causeway and temple (25)

Both rooms have the same dimensions (25)

Pyramid of Amenemhat I.

Used old kingdom stonework with relief on it. (5)

Pyramid of Amenemhat II.                               Undetermined height or angle.     (3)

Pyramid of Amenemhat III.                              Height 81.5m                 Angle 57° 15' 50"

Unfired brick, limestone casing. (3)

Pyramid of Sesotris III (12th Dynasty)                Height 78.5m                 Angle 56° 18' 35"

Unfired brick, limestone casing. (3)

Meidum (80Km S of Ghiza)

'Djed Sneferu', ' Sneferu endures' - (4rd Dyn)               Height 93.5m     Angle 51° 50' 35" (52° - ref:5)

7(8)-step pyramid, limestone casing, and 1 corbelled chamber.

Graffti in the mortuary temple ascribes it to Snofru. (5)

A number of Snofru's courtiers were buried at medium. (5)

Mariette found the statues of Pince Rahotep and his wife, Nofret and the famous 'panel of geese'. Inscriptions from 17th to 20th dynasties. (5)

Completed in 3 building phases, as follows: (5)

Mortuary temple 'Stella' not inscribed. (5)

1.       7-step 60m high. Covered with dressed Tura limestone. (5)

2.       Raised to 80m high. Covered with dressed Tura limestone. 'Grooves for metal bars to hold the final casing stones'. (5)

3.       Whole structure covered with smooth covering to look like smooth sided pyramid. (5)

Buttress walls 10 cubits (5 m) wide, and only 1 per step..

Tomb not rock-cut, it sits at the base of the pyramid. (5)

No sarcophagus. (5)

Un-dressed corbelled chamber. (5)

Chamber(s) partly filled with small square stone blocks. (5)

Cardinally aligned. (5)

The chamber opens out from the bottom North East corner. (25)  (As at Geeza)

Celestial passage at 28° (celestial pole). Original feature. Exits 20m high. (5)

1.5 million tons of stone. Casing stones. (5)

Mortuary temple to east, and causeway. No valley temple, (possibly in mud?). (5)

The vertical shaft was provided with two slots in the North wall, probably for the cordages used to let a portcullis into place. (25)

Some blocks marked with sketches of 2 or 3 stepped pyramids (25)

Mastaba 17.

The Mastaba had no tunnel shaft, yet it was tunneled directly to the tomb and robbed. (5)

T-shaped tomb chamber, no inscriptions. (5)

'Immense' sarcophagus of pink-granite, lid swiveled. Earliest sarcophagus yet found?

A 'mummy', or de-fleshed skeleton, was found with two fingers missing, replaced by rolled linen (5)

'Seila' step pyramid.

Too small for burial (5)

Abusir (S of Ghiza) Predominantly 5th Dynasty.

Pyramid of Sahure. (5th Dynasty)                Height 48m. (90 cubits-Ref: 25)               Angle 50° 11' 40".

Small, poorly cut limestone blocks in six layers (steps), of increasing height. (3)

Limestone casing (25)

Short Northern (polar?) shaft (27°), which was lined with back granite (25)

Granite portcullis set in a granite frame (25)

Horizontal corridor lined with great limestone blocks, and roofed with sloping slabs, inclined slowly upwards to the inner chamber. (25)

Just before the chamber, the corridor is lined with granite again. (25)

Three giant pairs of roof gable-stones, increasing in size to the top. (25)

Pyramid of Neferirakare. (5th Dynasty)                    Height 70m.                   Angle 53° 7' 48".

Built in layers of yellow rubble, without mortar, (4.1m = 8 cubits thick and inclined at 77° = 1 ½ palms per cubit high. Finished in brick) (25)

The only block left to gauge the external angle gives 53° 5' (5 palms per cubit high) (25)

Red Granite casing at the lower courses (25)

The length of the side is 200 cubits (106.8m) (25)

Funerary temple built from unfired brick. Papyrus found in funerary temple concerning the period from Djedkare Isesi to Pepy II. (3)

Probable sloping (polar) passage.

Two giant layers of gable stones over the inner chamber. (25)

The horizontal passage was covered with a 'Pent' roof (30°), many of the blocks do not 'but-up' correctly (25)

Sarcophagus chamber walls lined with limestone blocks 2m thick. (25)

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Pyramid of Neferefre (Raneferef).                    Unfinished. Papyrus found.. (3)

Pyramid of Nuiserre.    (5th Dyn)                        Height 51.5m.                Angle 51° 50' 35".(52°- Ref:25)

Funerary temple has granite floor. (3)

Inner masonry - layers 5m thick, inclined at 76°. (25)

Casing blocks in one course not all same height. (25)

North sloping corridor blocked by tapered granite plug, another limestone one further in. (25)

The end of the corridor is in granite (25)

The chamber roof is made of three layers of two series of blocks. (25)

El-Lisht (60km S of Ghiza)

Pyramid of Amenemhat I (12th Dynasty)            Height 55m                    Angle 54° 27' 44".

Unfired brick. (3)

Pyramid of Sesostris I (12th Dynasty)                 Height 61m                    Angle 49° 23' 55"

Radiating limestone walls filled with unfired bricks, limestone casing. (3)

The Faiyum region (Lake Qarun, or 'Moeris')

El-Lahun Pyramid (12th Dynasty).                      Height 48m                    Angle 42° 35'

Sesostris,  Radiating limestone blocks filled between with unfired brick, limestone casing. (3)

Pyramid of Hawara (Amenemhat III)                  Height 58m                    Angle 48° 45'

Unfired brick, Limestone casing. (3)

Notes

Pyramid of Sekhemket.

Undisturbed sarcophagus without body.

Same buttress walls as at Khaba and Saqqara. i.e. 5 cubits (2 ½ m), 2 per step.

A Table of comparisons of features from different pyramids (might they relate to different stars?)

 Location, and Pyramid Dynasty Exterior angle Height Casing Portcullis Polar shaft Alignment Saqqara. Djoser. 3rd 60m Step.  (None?) None No. Not. 5. E Sekhemkhet 3rd Step Layer. Zawyet. Khaba ? 2nd or 3rd 14-Step. (Brick?) No ? No. But No Vertical Exit Not. 5. W Unfinished. Zawyet. Mastaba 17. Shepseskaf 4th 20m Yes. Dashur. Bent. (Snoferu) 4th 54. 27' 44" - 43. 22' 101-5m Lime. (Tura?) Yes 2 (+?) Pole star. 26° 10' Cardinal Dashur. Red. (Snoferu) 4th 43. 22' 104m Lime. (Tura?) Pole star. 27° 36' Cardinal Meidum.  (Snoferu?) First 4th 51. 50' 35" 93.5m Step. Lime. Celestial Pole. 28° Cardinal Ghiza, Khufu 4th 51°. 50' - 52' 146.6m Tura. red Paint 3x Granite Pole star 26° Cardinal Ghiza, Khafre 4th 52°. 52 143.5m 1x Gr. (Tura?) 1x Granite 22° + 26°2' Cardinal Ghiza, Menkaure 4th 51°20 65.5m 16x Gr. (Tura?) 3x Granite Celestial Pole Cardinal Abu Rawash. Djedefre. 4th 1x Gr. Saqqara. Userkaf First 5th 53. 7' 48" 49m Tura. Granite 26° 35' Cardinal Saqqara. Djedkare 8th 8th of 5th 53. 7' 48" 52.5m Saqqara, Unas Last 5th 56. 18. 35 43m Lime. Tura? 3x Granite Saqqara. Teti. First 6th 53. 7' 48" 52.5m Saqqara, Pepy I 6th 53. 7. 48. 52.5m Lime. Tura? Saqqara. Menenre. 53. 7' 48" 52.5m 3x Granite Abusir. Sahure 2nd of 5th 50° 11' 40" 48m Lime. (Tura?) Granite. 27°  (Polar?) Cardinal Abusir, Neferirkare 53° 7' 48" 70m Some Gr. (Tura?) Unknown? N. Sloping. Cardinal Abusir. Nuiserre. 6th of 5th 51° 50' 35" 51.5m Lime. (Tura?) N. Sloping. Cardinal