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       Old World - New World Contact:

This page covers the various attempts to confirm contact between known 'Old-world' cultures, and the Pre-Columbian 'New-World'. At present (2012), only one instance of pre-Columbian European contact � the Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada c. 1000 AD � is regarded by scholars as demonstrated. (14) Without exception, every other discovery, artefact and every one of the hundreds of scientific articles supporting them are refuted.



Article: (May, 2013) 

'The largest ever genetic study of native South Americans identified a sub-population in Ecuador with an unexpected link to eastern Asia. The study, published in PLOS Genetics, concluded that Asian genes had been introduced into South America sometime after 6,000 years ago � the same time the Jomon culture was flourishing in Japan.

Back in the 1960s, the renowned Smithsonian archaeologist Betty Meggers argued that similarities between the pottery of the contemporaneous Valdivia culture in Ecuador and Japan�s Jomon culture indicated that Japanese fishermen had �discovered� America about 5,000 years ago.'.

(Link to Full Article)



   European Cultural Connections:

At present (2012), only one instance of pre-Columbian European contact � the Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada c. 1000 AD � is regarded by scholars as demonstrated. (14)


The Copper 'Reels' / 'Ox hides'. :

Copper ingot from Crete (Left), and a British Museum Ingot from the 'Foundry Hoard' at Enkomi, Cyprus c. 1225-1150 BC (Right).

American sites have yielded considerable numbers of copper tablets shaped like the hide of an animal; and they were named 'reels'. In 1896, in Cyprus, and subsequently in many Mediterranean excavations, corresponding 'Bronze Age' copper objects, recognised now as ingots used in international currency, have been found. The American examples suggest an international trading system existed. (1)

Frank Joseph shows images of Ox-hide ingots from Pre-Inca Peru (13, p51), he goes on to say:

'The [Ecuadorian] Canari produced and handles a copper currency known to the Spaniards as hachuelas, or "axe-monies", in the shape of axe heads, mushrooms and ox hides. examples by the kilogram have been found and many are today preserved in private collections or public museums throughout Peru, Ecuador and Mexico' .... 'A sixty-pound copper ox hide was discovered near Lake Gogebic, in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The Mitchigan State Museum in Lansing displays a much smaller ox hide-shaped stone anciently used as a medium of exchange similar to the Canari hachuelas'.


The Piri Reis Map: The First Map of The Americas?.

The significance of this map is sometimes overshadowed by the various myths and claims surrounding it. Regardless of the debatable claim that the map shows the outline of the Antarctic continent, there are certain demonstrable facts which make this map potentially one of America's most valuable historical relics.

The Piri-reis map (c. 1513), is a fragment of a larger composite map of the world, with its epicentre in Egypt. It was created with a working understanding of longitude and latitude and a system of geometry which allowed the cartographer to accurately draw the outlines of Africa and America relative to each other. 

The legend on the map dates it to 'Muharran' in the Muslim year 919 (1513 AD), only 20 years after the official discovery of the Americas by Columbus in 1492. The legend itself however, gave claims an origin far older than 20 years,  revealing that it was a section of a world map composed from more than twenty source maps, some drawn in the time of Alexander the great, and that 'some were based on mathematics' (7).

The map has  pre-Columbian provenance.

The map shows the eastern coastline of America.

The map shows accurate use of Longitude and Latitude.

The map-builders used 'Spherical geometry'.

The centre of the map is at the junction of the 23.5˚ parallel and the longitude of Alexandria.

The cartographers of the Piri-reis map used a system called the 12-wind system, which was used extensively in the middle ages and has its roots in the Babylonian sciences.

(More about the Piri-reis map)


  • Diodorus says 'Over against Africa lies a very great island in the vast ocean, many days sail from Libya westward' (Book V, Chap ii). The Phonecians, he said, having built Gades, sailed along the Atlantic coast of Africa when a ship was 'On a sudden, driven by a furious storm far into the main ocean; and that after they had lain under this tempest for many days, they at length arrived at this island'. (10)

This realistic bearded statue is Olmec, from La Venta

  • The Irish: Baldwin in 1869 cites a note from the Abbe Brasseur's translation of the 'Popol-Vuh' in which he said 'There is an abundance off legends and traditions concerning the passage of the Irish into America, and their habitual communication with that continent many centuries before the time of Columbus...An Irish saint, named Vigile, who lived in the eighth century, was accused to Pope Zachary of having taught heresies on the subject of the antipodes. At first he wrote to the pope in reply to the charges, but afterwards he went to Rome in person to justify himself, and there he proved to the pope that the Irish had been in communication with a trans-Atlantic world'. This fact seems to have been preserved in the records of the Vatican. (10)

  • The Basques, being adventurous fishermen, and extensively engaged in the whale fishery, were accustomed to visit the northeast coast of America long before the time of Columbus, and probably "from time immemorial". (See Michael's "Le Pays Basques," and De Bourbourgs introduction). (10)

  • The Welsh annals tell us that the prince Madog, about the year 1170 AD, 'sailed away westward, going south of Ireland', to find refuge from the civil war among his countrymen. We are told that he found the land he sought. Having made preparations for a settlement, he returned to Wales, secured a large company that 'filled ten ships', and then sailed away again, and 'never returned'. In 1660, the Rev. Morgan Jones, a Welsh clergymen, seeking to go by land from South Carolina to Roanoke, was captured by the Tuscarora Indians. He declared that his life was spared because he spoke Welsh, which some of the Indians understood; that he was able to converse with them in Welsh, though with some difficulty; and that he remained with them four months'. (10)


'When were the Azores first Populated':

The recent report by the President of the APIA has opened the floodgates to the perception of prehistoric activity on the islands. With archaeological discoveries having been made on most of the nine islands, there is now no doubt that they were occupied in the past. Similarities to Greek and Carthaginian remains are of particular interest as coins from the same period had been previously discovered on the island of Corvo (2)

(The Azores: A Case for Pre-Columbian Contact.)




   African Cultural Connections:


There have been several previous attempts to prove the 'fusion' of African and native Pre-Columbian American races. Evidence has been put forward ranging from linguistics, plant geography, skeletons, terracotta figures and even North African 'Tifinag' inscriptions on the Virgin Islands. (3) However, nowhere is the evidence for this argument stronger than at La-Venta and San Lorenzo, where several large stone heads and have been discovered that clearly display Negroid features.

The huge proportions of the heads demonstrates that they were influential people, and their association with the Olmec culture at around (1,200-600 B.C.) places them long before the Maya, Inca or Columbus's arrival in America. Van Sertima concluded that these people originated from Egypt and the middle-east.

The first rumours of large stone-heads in Tres Zapotes came from as early as 1858, but it was in 1938 that Dr. Stirling uncovered the first head, which was made from a single piece of basalt rock resting on a prepared foundation of un-worked slabs of stone. He said of it that it was:

 '...unique amongst aboriginal American sculptures, it is remarkable for its realistic treatment. The features are bold and it is amazingly negroid in character'.

The head was found 10 miles from the source of the stone and a long slab of stone which was found at the same site yielded a precise date of Nov 4th. 291 BC. As digging increased in south America other larger heads and earlier heads were found at sites such as La Venta, which began to reveal a chapter of history in the pre-Columbian Gulf of Mexico that was almost lost to us. The La Venta heads showed several similarities to the Tres Zapotes heads, and it emerged that they dominated the ceremonial plaza, a feature which suggests that they were in some way 'revered'. Four heads were found at La Venta, all of them faced the Atlantic, and the largest at 9ft high had its domed top flattened so that it could function as an altar. A speaking tube was found going in at the ear and out at the mouth; a possible oracle or talking god. Radio carbon dates from the site were published in 1957 and they give an average reading of 814 BC +/- 134 yrs.  These figures were among the oldest at the La Venta site.

La Venta was not alone in its depiction of Negroid faces in stone. Apart from the four found there, two were excavated in Tres Zapotes and a further ten at San Lorenzo in Vera Cruz, one of which, the largest known, is nine feet, four inches high, and is estimated to weigh around 40 tons (3). The theory forwarded by Van Sertima reinforcing the theory that the 'Olmec' sites of La Venta and Tres Zapotes were governed by Negroid Africans and Middle-eastern Caucasians between 800-600 BC.


Craniology: In 1972, craniologist Andrzej Wiercinski reported that 13.5% of the 76 fragmentary crania from Tlatilco, a site associated with the Olmec civilization, showed "a clear prevalence of the total Negroid pattern" (Jordan 1992). Wiercinski measured the skulls for 48 morphological traits, but focused on the traits he considered best for discriminating between the "three great races of man" (Van Rossum 2004). The remains were dated to the Pre-Classic Period (1,500 BCE-300 CE), well before the arrival of Columbus. (3)

African Skeletal Remains In Mexico:


The Mali Empire: Perhaps more than coincidentally, North African sources describe what some consider to be visits to the New World by a Mali fleet in 1,311. (15) According to these sources, 400 ships from the Mali Empire discovered a land across the ocean to the West after being swept off course by ocean currents. Only one ship returned, and the captain reported the discovery of a western current to Prince Abubakari II; the off-course Mali fleet of 400 ships is said to have conducted both trade and warfare with the peoples of the western lands. It is claimed that Abubakari II abdicated his throne and set off to explore these western lands. In 1324, the Mali king Mansa Musa is said to have told the Arabic historian, Al-Umari that "his predecessors had launched two expeditions from West Africa to discover the limits of the Atlantic Ocean."


Genetics: According to the findings of a Dr. de Garay, the director of the Genetic Program of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy in Mexico. Dr. de Garay identified the malaria resistant mutant gene, that produces sickle cells, in the blood of the Lacandones Indians, one of the oldest and most secluded tribes in Mexico. This tribe, of Mayan stock, who inhabit the forests of the upper waters of the Usumacinta river have not been known to mix with outsiders in post-Columbian times yet they possess a gene that is �usually found only in the blood of black people.� (19)

The following comment by F. Hayes Ph.D. is also very telling. In 1854, at the National Emigration Convention of Coloured People, held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a statement was issued to the African inhabitants of the United States of America regarding the necessity for leaving the USA as the only alternative left for them. Within that statement was the following observation:

'And among the earliest and most numerous class, who have found their way to the new world, were those of the African race. And it has been ascertained to our minds beyond a doubt, that when the continent was discovered, there were found in the West Indies and Central America, tribes of the black race, fine looking people, having the usual characteristics of colour and hair, identifying them as being originally of the African race'. (20)

Article: GambiaEcho (2011). 'Africans in Pre Columbian America'. (Quick-link)

(The Olmec Stone-Heads)

(Olmecs Homepage)


   Middle-Eastern Cultural Connections:


The Mystery of the 'Cocaine Mummies'.

In 1976 a German scientist, Dr Svetla Balabanova, made a discovery which was to baffle Egyptologists, and call into question whole areas of science and archaeology to chemistry and botany.

She discovered that the body of Henut Taui contained large quantities of cocaine and nicotine. The surprise was not just that the ancient Egyptians had taken drugs, but that these drugs come from tobacco and coca, plants completly unknown outside the Americas, unheard of until Sir Walter Raleigh introduced smoking from the New World, or until cocaine was imported in the Victorian era.

(Click here for full transcript of video)

Following this discovery, other experts began testing Mummies and discovered Tobacco for example the substance was found in Mummies from the British Musuem by their keeper Dr.Rosalie David. There was even some found on the bandages of the great Rameses II himself by Dr. Michele Lescaux. Another discovery in the mummy of Ramesses II also led to suggestions of early contact. This was an adult Lasioderma serricorne, a beetle also known as the 'tobacco beetle'. It was first described in American dried plants in 1798 but not recorded as a species until 1886. It may be of tropical origin and has been found in Tutankhamun's tomb, Bronze Age Akrotiri and Amarna. (16)


Article: Ancient Egyptian Bibliography (AEB), Published by the University of Leiden.

NERLICH, Andreas G., Franz PARSCHE, Irmgard WIEST, Peter SCHRAMEL and Udo LÖHRS, Extensive pulmonary haemorrhage in an Egyptian mummy, Virchows Archiv. An International Journal of Pathology, Berlin - Heidelberg 427 (1995), 423-429. (ill.).

Report on the morphological and trace element findings of several internal organs from an Egyptian mummy approximately dating from the year 950 B.C. according to C-14-analysis. By use of a multidisciplinary approach the authors succeeded in discovering evidence for severe and presumably recurrent pulmonary bleeding during life. This was suggested by the finding of massive haemosiderin deposits in the lung and a selectively and markedly elevated level of iron in trace element analysis of the lung tissue. Furthermore, an enhanced deposition of birefringent particles in the lung tissue, without significant fibrosis, was observed. The histological analysis of liver, stomach and intestine confirmed the macroscopic organ diagnoses without evidence of any major pathological processes. In addition, analysis for various drugs revealed a significant deposition of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), nicotine and cocaine in several organs of the mummy. The concentration profiles additionally provide evidence for a preferential inhalation of THC, while nicotine and cocaine containing drugs seem to have been consumed orally.


Hand-Shaped Incense Spoons:

Van Sertima (3) mentions the presence of similar 'Hand shaped incense spoons' in both 'Old-world' and 'New-world' cultures.

The following two photos (below left and right), from Denderra, Egypt, are perhaps what Van Sertima (3) is alluding to... although, and I daresay its all in the eye of the beholder .. but while the tour guide calls them 'incense burners', it looks as though the contents of these 'incense burners' are being inhaled.

'Burnt Offering's' at Denderra, Egypt.

More 'burnt offering' from Abydoss.

(Other examples of Drug use in Prehistory)



The Model Aeroplanes:

It is perhaps just another one of life's curious coincidences that these small aerodynamically sound 'models' have been found in both South America and Egypt. Whatever the kismet, they provide good food for thought.


Egyptian 'model' (left), S. American 'models' (centre, right).

This particular 'model' is on display in the Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC. Its explanation states: �gold artefact, a stylised insect, from the Quimbaya culture, Antioquia province, Columbia, ca. 1000-1500 AD.�

(More about Prehistoric Flight)



   Pacific Cultural Connections:

There have been several studies which have proven to have substantiated the idea of a Pacific exchange with Pre-Columbian Americans, as the following reports show:

Aboriginal American cultivated cotton has been indicated to the satisfaction of botanists to be a hybrid between Asiatic cultivated and American wild cotton. Cotton was present in the lowest agricultural, pre-ceramic horizons of coastal Peru. Carriage by human hands across the Pacific at this early period would appear to be the only explanation. The other agricultural products found in this earliest Peruvian agricultural horizon, beans and cucurbits (squashes and gourds), are also of widespread occurrence in both the Old and New worlds. (11)

Polynesian Chickens in Chile:

'The most recent theory on chickens is that they were domesticated from the red junglefowl, probably in Thailand, and probably about 8,000 years ago. They are believed to have reached the Polynesian islands about 3,000 years ago, brought by the Lapita expansion. A 2007 paper written by Alice Storey and colleagues reports on excavations at the site of El Arenal-1. El Arenal-1 is located in south central Chile, and is part of the El Vergel Cultural Complex of horticulturalists, dated between AD 1000 and 1500. Fifty chicken bones were recovered from the site, representing a minimum of five birds. The bones themselves were radiocarbon dated, and returned a calibrated age range of AD 1304-1424. Most interestingly, DNA studies indicate that these chickens were identical to chicken bones from two prehistoric sites in the Pacific: Mele Havea in Tonga (2000-1550 years old), and Fatu-ma-Futi in American Samoa, which dates to about the same period as El Arenal'. (18)

Bark cloth is made of the same or a similar bark by a very cognate process in Polynesia and South America, and the product in Polynesia and South America, and the product has a similar appearance. In both regions feather mosaics were important and had a very like appearance, made by analogous processes. (11)

Bottle Gourds: The earliest bottle gourds (Lagenaria siceraria) have been discovered in southwest Ecuador dated to 9,300 BP and they are believed to have originated there. The bottle gourd appears in Polynesia by ca. AD 1000. Molecular data suggests, but doesn't yet prove, that the Polynesian bottle gourds are hybrids of the South American and Indonesia forms. (18)

Coconuts: DNA studies of coconuts (Cocos nucifera) growing today in Ecuador and reported by the Spanish conquistadors indicates that they originated in the Philippines, and were brought to Ecuador by seafarers ~2250 years BP (Baudouin and Lebrun 2009). (18)

Totora Reed: Totora reeds grow in South America, particularly around Lake Titicaca, but also on Easter Island. These reeds have been used by various pre-Columbian South American civilizations to build reed boats. The boats, called balsa, vary in size from small fishing canoes to thirty meters long. They are still used on Lake Titicaca, located on the border of Peru and Bolivia, 3810 meters above sea level.

Sweet Potato: Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1000 AD, and current thinking is that it was brought to central Polynesia around 700 AD, possibly by Polynesians who had travelled to South America and back, and spread across Polynesia to Hawaii and New Zealand from there. (22)

(More about the Prehistoric Pacific)

Further Research:

Article: (2006) 'Sweet Potato in Pre-Columbian Polynesia: An Overview'.    (Quick-link)

Article: (2007) 'Historical evidence for a pre-Columbian presence of Datura in the Old World and implications for a first millennium transfer from the New World'.      (Quick-link)



  Oriental Cultural Similarities:

The Jomon Culture:


Article: (May, 2013) 

'The largest ever genetic study of native South Americans identified a sub-population in Ecuador with an unexpected link to eastern Asia. The study, published in PLOS Genetics, concluded that Asian genes had been introduced into South America sometime after 6,000 years ago � the same time the Jomon culture was flourishing in Japan.

Back in the 1960s, the renowned Smithsonian archaeologist Betty Meggers argued that similarities between the pottery of the contemporaneous Valdivia culture in Ecuador and Japan�s Jomon culture indicated that Japanese fishermen had �discovered� America about 5,000 years ago.'.

(Link to Full Article)


Click on image for larger viewJapan: The Valdivia Culture is one of the oldest settled cultures recorded in the Americas. It emerged in Ecuador  between 3,500 BC and 1,800 BC. The Valdivia culture was discovered in 1956 by the Ecuadorian archaeologist Emilio Estrada. Based on comparison of archaeological remains and pottery styles (specifically, the similarity between the Valdivian pottery and the ancient Jōmon culture on the island of Kyūshū, Japan) Estrada, along with the American archaeologist Betty Meggers suggested that a relationship between the people of Ecuador and the people of Japan existed in ancient times.

Since then, it has been discovered that people living in the area, and in SW Japan yet uncovered, both have a low rate of a virus not known in other populations, HTLV-1. (23)

Image Above: Valdavian Pottery (left), Jomon Pottery (right)

  • The Pan-pipes of Peru and of early China show some astonishing similarities, such as use in pairs, connected by string, with alternate notes of the scales on alternate instruments. (11)

  • In both regions [Peru and China] a narcotic is chewed, betel-nut in the Pacific, coca in the Andean region, and the alkaloid is released by mixing the quid with lime. The gourd containers and the lime spatulas are of the same forms. (11)

  • The Abbe de Boubourg says in his introduction to the Popol-Vuh, 'It has been known to scholars nearly a century that the Chinese were acquainted with the American continent in the fifth century of our era. Their ships visited it. They called it Fu-Sang, and said it was situated at the distance of 20,000 li from Ta-Han'. M.Leon de Rosny has ascertained that Fusang is the topic of 'a curious notice in the Wa-kan-san-tan-dzon-ye' (which is the name of the great Japanese encyclopaedia). In that work Fusang is said to be situated east of Japan, beyond the ocean, at the distance of about 20,000 li (7,000 miles or more) from Ta-nan-kouek. (10)



   An Australian Presence in Pre-Columbian America:

A Genetic link has been determined between the Aborigines of Australia and the 'Fuegian's' from 'Tierra-Del-Fuego' in Southern-most America. This suggests a connection at least 30,000 years old.

Article: BBC. Science News. (August, 1999)

'The first Americans were descended from Australian aborigines, according to evidence in a new BBC documentary. The programme, Ancient Voices, shows that the dimensions of prehistoric skulls found in Brazil match those of the aboriginal peoples of Australia and Melanesia. Other evidence suggests that these first Americans were later massacred by invaders from Asia'.

(Link to full article)

There is said to be a physical similarity between the 'La-Jollans' of Southern California, who also used the spear thrower, had initiation ceremonies for boys, with women excluded, the twirling of a 'Bull-roarer', and with ground paintings involved. La Jollan artefacts are apparently virtually indistinguishable from those of the Kartan culture of Australia. (3)

(More about The Australian Aborigines)



   Other Featured Articles:

Pre-Columbian Pyramid Building:

In 1964, aerial photography identified nearly 1,000 pyramid sites in Peru alone. (4)

The earliest 'Proto-Pyramid' complex at Caral in Peru has been dated to 2,600 BC, the exact century that the first pyramids in Egypt were being constructed.

The existence of pyramids in the Americas has often been suggested as a significant proof of contact between people from the 'Old' and 'New' worlds. However, this claim has been reasonably contended with the argument that the similarity in shape proves no such thing, and that such claims can only be validated by providing through substantiating proof, such as cultural, botanical and more recently, genetic research.


 Whether through accident or design, it is a fact that the 'Pyramid of the Sun' at Teotihuacan has the same base dimensions and is half the height of the 'Great' pyramid at Ghiza.



The layout of the two great pyramid complexes have also been compared.

(More about Pyramid Geometry)

Pyramids and the Feathered Serpent.

The step pyramid of Kukulcan (Quetalcoatl), at Chitchen Itza (Note the snakes on the left side)

The Great stairwell at Hatshepsut's Mortuary temple includes a huge feathered serpent running down each side of the stairwell.

The feathered serpent is a very specific and fundamentally important symbol of both South American and Egyptian cultures. In Egypt during the Middle kingdom, the symbol can be generally interpreted as representing a united Egypt (both upper and lower). In South America, the symbol was used to represented the god Quetalcoatl.

(More about Feathered Serpent's)

Further similarities become apparent when we look at the similarities of 'function' between pyramids from the two cultures. We know for example that there was an astronomical association in both cultures. Van Sertima notes that 'When pyramids appear in America in the Olmec culture they are orientated astronomically'. (3) Of course, the fact that the Babylonian ziggurats and Egyptian pyramid were also built by 'Solar' worshippers is just one of the many other cross-cultural similarities that can be seen.

(Other South American Pyramids)

Left: Sun-god from Aztec calendar, Right: Zoaraster winged-sun God.



Plant Exchange Between the Old-World and New-World.

We all know the famous story of tobacco being brought to Europe, along with numerous other exotic plant species, so how are we to explain the arrival of Old-world plants before Europeans arrival in 1492. (See also Pacific Similarities above)

Indian Maize (Corn)...?

Although Corn (Maize) officially only made the journey from the 'New-world' following Columbus discovery of the Americas, it is found in Indian art several hundreds of years before his time.

(More about Prehistoric India)

Article: (1969). 'Pre-Columbian Maize North of the Old-world Equator'.  (Quick-link)

Article: (1989). 'Indologist Confirms Maize in Ancient Sculptures'.         (Quick-link)

Article: (2006). Presence of Pre-Columbian Maize in the Old-world: An Overview.    (Quick-link)

'Frequent observations of maize recorded in the past on the East and the West Coast of Africa and at the ports in the Mideast show that maize was one of the staples of the natives well before 1492. It is also evident that maize in the West Africa was disseminated to Iberia and Lombardy in the pre-Columbian time. An earlier contact between the Old and the New World is strongly suggested'.    

Article: (2006). 'Pre-Columbian Maize in China and India'.  (Quick-link)


Article: March, 2008: Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaobotany.

'Investigation of botanical remains from an ancient site, Tokwa in Uttar Pradesh, has brought to light the agriculture- based subsistence economy during the Neolithic culture (3rd-2nd millennium BC). An important find among the botanical remains is the seeds of South American custard apple, regarded to have been introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th century. The remains of custard apple as fruit coat and seeds have also been recorded from other sites in the Indian archaeological context, during the Kushana Period (AD 100-300) in Punjab and Early Iron Age (1300-700 BC). The factual remains of custard apple, along with other stray finds discussed in the text, favour a group of specialists, supporting with diverse arguments, the reasoning of Asian - American contacts, before the discovery of America by Columbus in 1498'.

(Link to Article)



'Monarchic' similarities between the 'Old' world and the 'New' cultures.

There have been several attempts to connect the old and new world through apparently unrelated similarities. The following are a selection of rituals involved religion or monarchy, which have counterparts in both the old-world cultures and the 'new-world'.

The following list comes from Van Sertima (3). It illustrates several specific similarities between these two apparently unrelated cultures. Although the evolutionists often quote the 'isolationist' theory to explain these similarities, there are also similarities in mythology, dialogue, religion, etc to warrant further examination

  • The four Bacabs that hold up the sky.

  • The opening of the mouth ceremony.

  • The Double Crown.

  • The Royal Flail.

  • The Sacred Boat.

  • Purple as a royal colour.

  • The use of Artificial Beards for priests and Royalty. Young men and even women had to wear false beards in Egypt if they were to participate in royal or priestly duties.

  • A Feathered Fan with specific colours.

  • Ceremonial Umbrellas.

  • Human headed bird figures emerging from tombs. The theme of 'human-headed' bird figures is repeated in several middle-eastern cultures, not least, the Egyptians, Mesopotamians and before them, the 'Metsamorian' culture from Turkey, the roots of which have been shown to trace back to 9,500 BC.

(For a fuller list see Jairazbhoy).


In issue #8 of The Ancient American, G. Thompson translated a few paragraphs from Mariano Cuevas' 1940 book: Historia de la Nacion Mexicana, which told of a discovery in Mexico. The following is a summary of that translation.

In August 1914, Professor M.A. Gonzales was excavating Mayan ruins in the city of Acajutla, in Mexico. The two illustrated statuettes were uncovered (Left). On the male, the headdress, the beard, and the cartouche are all typically Egyptian in style. The male is thought to represent Osiris, the female Isis.

(Ref: Thompson, Gunnar; "Egyptian Statuettes in Mexico," Ancient American, 2:12, no. 8, 1995.)

(More about pre-Columbian Mexico)




Old-World Scripts in the Americas.

In 1838, the first authenticated Phoenician inscription was excavated from a burial chamber found at the base of Mammoth Mound, in Moundsville, West Virginia. The similarity to Iberian Writing was recognised and the contents of the mound were attributed to European visitors. The mounds of the eastern and central America have timber chambers rather than stone, but they contain similar archaeological remains to those found in Iberia. (1)

Barry Fell, in his book 'America BC', presents us with numerous examples of ancient 'scripts' found across the Americas. They include Iberian 'Punic', Libyan, Basque, Norse, Egyptian, Phoenician and 'Ogham', all of which are traditionally found in the context with the 'Old World'. Convincingly, many of these scripts were dated, according to their dialects, to within the range of years 800 BC - 300 BC (1).

Any resistance to the idea that America was colonised before Columbus, is countered by the weight of physical evidence provided by Fell. The picture he builds suggests that about 3,000 years ago bands of mariners crossed the North Atlantic and colonised North America. They built temples and circles and buried their dead in marked graves. They were still there in the time of Julius Caesar, as is attested by an inscribed monolith on which the date of celebration of the great Celtic festival of Beltane (Mayday) is given in Roman numerals appropriate to the reformed Julian calendar introduced in 46 BC. In the wake of these 'Celtic' pioneers came Phoenician traders from Cadiz, Egyptian miners, Basques Libyans and Norse. Each leaving a few engraved stones to mark their visits. (1)

The 'Fuenta Magna'.

This 'libation' bowl, with cuneiform hieroglyphs on it was discovered in the 1950's near Tiahuanaco.

The authenticity of the bowl is challenged by sceptics who claim it to be fabricated by archaeologists. It now resides in the Museo De Oro, La Paz.

(More about the Fuente Magna)

The 'Grave Creek' Inscription:

The Grave Creek Stone was professionally excavated in 1889 from an undisturbed burial mound in Eastern Tennessee by the Smithsonian's Mound Survey project. The director of the project, Cyrus Thomas, initially declared that the curious inscription on the stone were "beyond question letters of the Cherokee alphabet." (Thomas 1894: 391:4)

In 1988, wood fragments found with the inscription were Carbon-14 dated to somewhere between 32 A.D. and 769 A.D.(McCulloch 1988). This range is consistent with Gordon's dating of the letters. (9)

(More about the Mound Builders)



(Prehistoric Cross-culturality)

(Pre-Columbian Americas)



1). Barry Fell. America B.C. 1974. Demeter press.
2). A. Collins. Gods of Eden. 1998. Headline press.
3). Ivan Van Sertima. African presence in Early America. 1992. Transaction Publishers.
4). D. Zink. The Ancient Stones Speak. 1979. Musson Bok Co.
7). C. Hapgood. The Maps of the Sea Kings.
8). Lewis Spence, Mexico and Peru, 1994, Senate press.
10). John. D. Baldwin. Pre-Historic Nations. 1869. Harper and Brothers.
11). J. Alden Mason. The Ancient Civilisations of Peru. 1957. Penguin Books.
12). The Atlas of Mysterious Places. 1987.Guild publishing.
13). Frank Joseph. Atlantis in Wisconsin. 1998. Galde Press Inc.
16). Buckland, P.C., Panagiotakopulu, E "Rameses II and the tobacco beetle" Antiquity 75: 549�56 2001
17). E. Von Daniken. In Search of Ancient gods. 1976. Corgi.
19). Ivan van Sertima, They Came Before Columbus (New York: Random House, 1976), pp. 94�96.
21). G. Hancock. Fingerprints of the gods. Mandarin. 1996.


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