The Indus Valley
Culture (IVC): Technically, the Indus Valley Culture today lies mostly
in modern day Pakistan. In its heyday c. 2,000 BC, it ranked alongside
the Egyptian and Sumerian cultures in greatness. Noticeably, although
there are no significant monumental temple remains found in most other
prehistoric civilisations, we have inherited instead, large city
complexes, laid out in grids, with common baths, granaries, sewers,
metalwork etc, all of which were abandoned several centuries after they
were built, ironically believed o be due to severe flooding of the Indus
river (Harappa was re-built six times). There is no question that the
Indus Valley Civilisation had strong contact with the west as several
Indus Valley seals have been found in Sumerian settings, and vica-versa.
The discovery of
city in the bay of Cambay has put India back on the prehistoric map.
Fragments of wood from the site have yielded Radio-carbon dates at over
7,000 B.C. putting into question our whole perception of prehistory.
Should this early date be confirmed, it will open a whole new chapter of
The Indian subcontinent, which is effectively separated
to the North by the Himalayan mountains, has been a melting pot of
continuous cultural activity for thousands of years, influencing the
development of numerous later cultures all around the world.
Jan, 2013). AFP.
'Indians Broke Australian Isolation 4,000
'Ancient Indians migrated to
Australia and mixed with Aborigines 4,000 years ago,
bringing the dingo's ancestor with them, according to
new research that re-evaluates the continent's long
isolation before European settlement. Researchers at the
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in
Leipzig, Germany, reported "evidence of substantial gene
flow between Indian populations and Australia about
4,000 years ago". (Quick-link)
India was home to the once great Indus Valley civilisation, which
included more than a thousand settlements and declined at about 1,700
(9), tells us that 'In India, dolmens dot the land from Nerbuddha River to Cape Comorin. At the latest count (1977), the Neermul
jungle of central India has yielded at least 2,000 of the
monuments...and another 2,200 have been located in Dacca'.
Mr.J.Babington in 1823
that discovered the first megaliths of Malabar. The first recorded
excavation of megaliths was perhaps done by Capt Meadows Taylor. He
had excavated the megaliths of Sorepur in 1853. The oldest megalith in
India is in Mangadu in Kerela which has been dated to about 2,890 BP.
The 2004 tsunami uncovered an
city in the Bay of Cambay.
The island city of Dwarika's construction is recorded in
the Mahabharata - along with it's sinking into the sea. It was found only
recently by pioneering team led by India's most revered and respected
archaeologist Dr S.R. Rao and is heralded as the biggest archaeological
find after the discovery of Troy. It was a submerged and lost city on
the west coast of India.
The site has yielded
artefacts dated at 9,500 BP. (7,500 BC)
Work in peripheral land areas of the
Gulf of Cambay like Kathana, Lotal and Motibaur gave evidences of major
earthquakes in the Cambay areas in the following period
(1) 2780 � 150 years BP,
(2) 3983 � 150 BP and
(3) 7540 � 130 BP. Herein lies the
evidence of the end of the Gulf of Cambay civilization.
In the old major event at about 7,600
BC, the southern metropolis appear to have been thrown down by faulting
and the nearby sea appear to have inundated it. Because of this the
people appear to have proceeded north in the elevation higher than the
sea level and established the 2nd or northern metropolis.
This also got affected by faulting due to earth quakes
around 4,000 BP and destroyed by the 2780 � 150 BP EQ, by down throwing
the metropolis and sea transgressed the area to completely submerge it.
Space images taken by NASA reveal an
ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka.
The recently discovered bridge currently
named Adam's Bridge is made of a chain of shoals, stretching
around 30km across the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. Of
interest concerning this formation, although by no means substantiating
the argument that it was man-made, is the section of the Indian epic,
the 'Ramayana', which mentions a bridge between Rameshwaram (India) and
the Sri-Lankan coast, constructed under the supervision of the dynamic
and invincible figure of Rama, who is the incarnate of the supreme.
The Rig Veda is the
oldest Indian text and one of the oldest surviving in the world.
The collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns were collected over the span
of a few hundred years and are counted amongst the four canonical
sacred texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas. Although they are often
quoted as having been written in the second millennium B.C. by
western academics, there is no actual proof of this and there are
strong linguistic and cultural similarities with the early Iranian
Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times. It is suggested
by Asian scholars that they may date as far back at 7,000 B.C.
an idea supported by recent discoveries in the Gulf of Cambay.
Astronomy and the
Rig Veda: It is claimed that the Rig Veda is primarily concerned
with astronomical information from which the following can be
astronomers were aware of the spherical nature of the Earth.
auroral displays demonstrate that they had visited latitudes as
far north as 80�.
the 'twin Asvins' as either 'morning stars' or 'evening stars'
which sometimes move 'by a path that leads aright' and at times
'by a path that leads direct' (1.139.4) are apparently
descriptions of the retrograde movements of Mercury and Venus.
Rig Veda (and Mahabharata) talk about a cosmic cycle called
'Brahma's Day', a period of time consisting of 4,320,000,000
in relation to an expanding and retracting universe. (smaller
versions of this figure, that is 4,320,000 years constitute a
great age which is subdivided into four 'Yuga's'. Interestimgly,
such a period of time is also found in the lore of the
The Mahabharata and Ramayana:
The two great epics
of Indian history. The stories they tell are inter-twinned with mythology, but it is suspected that there might be basis for fact
somewhere, as is common with many strong localised myths.
The events of
the Ramayana occur before the Mahabharata. They concern the adventures of
lord Rama. Rama is the son of King Dasaratha, but he is also an
incarnation of the god Vishnu, born in human form to do battle with
the demon lord Ravana.
When was the
Mahabharata references to sequential solar and lunar eclipses and
references to some celestial observations have been made. Dr.
R. N. Iyengar, of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore examined
the relevant references and searched for compatible dates by making
use of planetarium software (PVIS and EZC). He concluded that most
of these references were internally consistent and that the eclipses
and celestial observations of Mahabharata belong to the period 1493
BC - 1443 BC of Indian History.
(Reference: Indian Journal of History of
researcher B. G. Sidharth
has calculated both the time and place that the great war of the
Mahabarata took place: He has based his findings on the
description of a lunar eclipse in the text, which suggests that
the battle took place somewhere just above the 35� in the
eastern parts of China (Xixiang province) on 24th June 1311 B.C.
It has subsequently been revealed by archaeological evidence
that on this very spot and during the 2nd millennium B.C. there
lived an Indo-European people conjectured to be the Tocharians,
the Tush�ras of the Mahabharata.
The events of the
Ramayana take place in the Treta Yuga, when the world is young and
only somewhat corrupted. The events of the Mahabharata however,
take place much later at the end of the Dwapara Yuga, when the world
is far more grim and corrupt than in Rama's times. The violent and
tragic events at the end of the Mahabharata mark the end of the
Dwapara Yuga and the beginning of the Kali Yuga, the worst age which
we find ourselves in today.
- The 'Iron Pillar
of Delhi' (Photo, left), in the courtyard of Qutub Minar in Delhi. It is
a column of Cast Iron weighing approx. 6 tons and standing 23ft 8 inches
high, with a diameter of 16 inches. The column had stood in the temple of Mutra, capped with 'Garuda', an image of a bird incarnation of the God
Vishnu. Muslim invaders later destroyed the 'Garuda' and tore the column
from its original setting, re-erecting it in Delhi in the 11th century AD.
It bears an inscription of an epitaph to King Chandraupta II, who died in
413AD. The bar shows some weathering, but unusually little rust.
The Indian sacred scriptures make
numerous references to flight. Incredibly, the most ancient and sacred texts
discuss high speed manoeuvres, invisibility, and even a flight to the moon.
contains 230 stanzas that are devoted to flight. It describes in detail,
every possible aspect of flying. The International Academy off
Sanskrit Research in Mysore, India, conducted a study of the ancient texts
and published its findings in a book called 'Aeronautics, a manuscript
From the Prehistoric Past'. The following are a few translated excerpts
from the text:
aircraft which can go by its own force like a bird - on the earth or water
or through the air - is called a Vimana.
That which can travel in the sky from place to place is called a Vimana
by the sage of old.'
must be strong and durable and built of a light wood [Lagha-daru], shaped
like a bird in flight with wings outstretched [mahavinhanga]. Within it must
be placed the mercury
engine, with its
heating apparatus made of iron underneath'.
larger craft [Daru-vimana], because it is built heavier, [alaghu], four
strong containers of mercurymust be built into the interior. When these are
heated by controlled fire from the iron containers, the Vimana possesses
thunder power through the mercury. The iron engine must have properly welded
joints to be filled with mercury, and when the fire is conducted to the
upper parts, it develops power with the roar of a lion. By means of the
energy latent in mercury, the driving whirlwind
is set in motion, and the traveller sitting inside the Vimana may travel in
the air, to such a distance as to look like a pearl in the sky'.(2)
Allahabad, India - Formerly called
Prayag, and listed in the Mahabharata as the last and most important
of 270 ancient holy places. Prayag was considered the mythical creation
point of the universe. The chief cult shrines at Prayag stood on an island
with a shrine to the primordial serpent who protected the eternal tree (seen
by Hsuan Tsang in 644). A goddess-shrine was recently found south of
Allahabad that dates to 11,000 BC, along with Mesolithic cave paintings of a
dancing shaman with horned head-dress, bangles and a trident, closely
Allahabad is an ancient Earth navel,
and is still witness to one of the greatest concentrations of humans in
One of the finest granite temples in India.
(Right) Vittala temple in Hampi: The wheels actually move.
(Left) Kailasa Rock cut Temple. One of several
in the region.
Maize (Corn) in India.?
The images above suggest so... alternatives on a
Article: March, 2008:
Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaobotany.
'Investigation of botanical remains from an ancient site, Tokwa
in Uttar Pradesh, has brought to light the agriculture- based
subsistence economy during the Neolithic culture (3rd-2nd
millennium BC). An important find among the botanical remains is
the seeds of South American custard apple, regarded to have been
introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th century. The remains of
custard apple as fruit coat and seeds have also been recorded
from other sites in the Indian archaeological context, during
the Kushana Period (AD 100-300) in Punjab and Early Iron Age
(1300-700 BC). The factual remains of custard apple, along with
other stray finds discussed in the text, favour a group of
specialists, supporting with diverse arguments, the reasoning of
Asian - American contacts, before the discovery of America by
Columbus in 1498'.
At the Temple of Chidambaram on
a raised platform, two sphinxes are sitting on either side of a grand
doorway, guarding the entrance of an ancient temple. They are known to
the worshippers and the priests as the divine beings that ward off evil
and remove sins. A mysterious smile adorns their human faces, which are
surrounded by full lion's mane. One is male, the other is female, and as
a faithful couple they have been seated in this way side by side for
many centuries. According to this temple's tradition, they dissolve the
negative vibrations of all who look at them as they enter the temple.
This Sphinx of India is also playing a
role in various legends and mythologies. Some of these mythologies are
part of local traditions and describe the purushamriga as the
founder of that particular temple, or as otherwise playing a role in its
tradition. But they are also found in particular episodes of the great
Indian epics, the Mahabharata and Ramayana. And also in some of the
Puranas. Thus there is a legend recounting the purushamriga as
one of the characters involved with the legendary events surrounding the
birth of Tamasa Manu, one of the earlier Manus or human ancestors. When
the sons of Lord Rama and Sita leave the ashram of Vasishtha to go in
search of their father, they meet the purushamriga on the way.
The depiction of the purushamriga as a devotee worshipping the
Shiva Linga refers to an episode from the Mahabharata that is
well known in the South of India.
Michael Wood. In Search of the First Civilisations.
1992. BBC Books.2) Peter Lancaster Brown. 'Megaliths, Myths and Men'.
1977. Book Club Associates.
3). B. G. Sidharth. The Celestial Key to the Vedas. 1999. Inner
4). See Dimmit and VAN Buitenen, Classical Hindu Mythology,
for a review of this figure.
9). Rene Noorbergen. Secrets of the Lost Races.
1977. New English Library.