In the common opinion of Egyptologists, the small
pyramids next to the great pyramid of Khufu served as burial
places for the relatives of the Pharaoh. Certain facts, which
have not been previously considered, indicate that there is a
chance that the pyramids — due to their ground plan arrangement
— are not only burial places but also the components of a
yearly calendar. This is the opinion of Hungarian architect
The northernmost of the three queens pyramids was
that of Hetepheres, the middle one was that of Meritetes while
the southernmost one was that of Hanutsen.
They are all in a ruined state today.
As a result of the position of the Ghiza
Necropolis on the 30 degrees latitude the rays of the
rising Sun accurately indicate the direction of due east
at the time of the autumnal and vernal equinoxes; while
the Sunrise is directed 28 degrees to the north of this
(i.e. N62şE) at the time of the summer solstice and 28
degrees to the south of this (i.e. S62şE) at the time of
the winter solstice.
distance of SP and apex of Meritetes is 110 m, the distance between
the apexes of Meritetes and Hetepheres is 59,25 m by
Wikipedia. (59,25/110 is appr. 28 degrees)
If, at the time of equinox in both spring and
autumn, the rays of rising sun hit the apex of the middle pyramid (Meritetes)
horizontally then in spring the shadow of this apex marks a
prominently important shade point (SP) on the south-eastern inclined
side of the great pyramid of Khufu and in autumn appears in the
proximity thereof. The straight line connecting the projection of
this SP location to the projection of the apex of the Meritetes
pyramid on the ground plan determines an accurate east-west
direction. If a straight line is drawn from the SP (shade point) at
an angle of N62şE (i.e. 62 degrees to the east measured from due
north), this straight line intersects the apex of the northernmost
The Basic 'Khufu Calendar' principles.
'By means of this sensibly made project, the most important
four dates of the year were determined'.
At the the time of the summer solstice
(the beginning of the year) and now only the shadow of the
northernmost small pyramid of Hetepheres appears on the shadow
point date marker. The apex shadow point of Hetepheres
starts moving to the North 77-59 cm a day.
At the time of the autumnal equinox, i.e.
the 21st of September, the apex of the pyramid of Meritetes
appears to coincide with the indicated shadow point date marker,
with the shadow of Hetepheres near it. The apex shadow point of
Meritetes starts moving to the North 59-77 cm a day. At the time
of the vernal equinox, i.e the 21st of March, the apex of
the pyramid of Meritetes appears to coincide with the indicated
shadow point date marker, with the shadow of Hetepheres near it.
The apex shadow point of Hetepheres starts moving back to
the South 59-77 cm a day.
At the time of the winter solstice
the shadow of the southernmost small pyramid of Hanutsen appears
near the shadow point date marker with the shadows of Meritetes
and Hetepheres. The apex shadow point of Meritetes starts moving
back to the South 77-59 cm a day.
Thus, the midsummer is indicated by the shadow of a small
pyramid while the deep of winter is indicated by the shadow of
three pyramids. At the time of equinox, exactly two shadows of
pyramid are shown!
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