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Link to Ghiza pageLink to DenderraLink to extreme egypt.Link to KarnakLinks to the Sphinx.Link to the Osirion (Strabo's Well).

        Prehistoric Egypt:

Egypt was witness to one of the most remarkable cultures in the ancient world.

It is host to the last remaining wonder of the ancient world, and is considered by many to be the place from which modern civilisation arose.


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   Prehistoric Egypt: Featured Items:


The 'Lost Labyrinth' of Egypt - It was recently announced that the lost labyrinth of Egypt at Hawara has been re-discovered by an expedition funded by NRIAG, Ghent University/Kunst-Zicht & Louis De Cordier, with the cooperation of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Horus Foundation & Isel Foundation.

The Great Labyrinth of Egypt.

This colossal temple was described in the past by authors such as Herodotus and Strabo, and was said to contain 3,000 rooms full of hieroglyphs and paintings. When Petrie first discovered the great artificial stone surface (304m by 244m) in 1889, at the depth of several meters, he interpreted it as the foundation of the labyrinth. New evidence suggests that the stone plateau may in fact be the roof of the great complex.

(More about this discovery)



Link to the Osirion (Strabo's Well).Abydoss - (The Osirion, Osireion, Strabo's Well).

As well as being the home of the great Osireion (Strabo's well), which shows several strong resemblances to the valley temple at Giza, it is also the location of the primary southern-Egyptian pre-dynastic to 2nd dynasty royal graveyard, which has revealed some interesting artefacts and casts doubt on the traditional explanation of early Egyptian history. The king-list from the Temple of Seti I shows Seti I and his young son, the future Ramasese II worshipping the cartouched names of 76 of their ancestors giving us one of the foundations of Egyptian chronologies.

(More about Abydoss and the Osireion)



Egyptian Pyramids: (Form and Function)

Egypt is renowned for its pyramids, but what exactly was their function to the builders? A look at the evolution of the pyramid shape, and its many meanings.

Includes the following: The alignment of Egyptian pyramids to Heliopolis, the complicated issue of Snoferu's three pyramids, cultural similarities with other pyramid builders and the relevance of the alignment of the 'memphite' pyramids to Heliopolis.

(More about Egyptian Pyramids)



Link to Karnak Karnak - (Thebes)- This solar temple was first realised by Sir N. Lockyer, and dated by him through archaeo-astronomy at 4,000 BC. The site originally included numerous obelisks, four of which weighe up to 300 tons each. The temple has been pillaged over the ages for its symbolic obelisks and today only two remain standing with a third fallen.

Karnak was considered an 'Earth Navel' and Herodotus records a sacred connection between Karnak and Delphi, The discovery of an Omphalus stone similar to that found in Delphi, appears to support this connection.

(More about Karnak)


The Sphinx: ancient-wisdom.comThe Sphinx - (Hwran Horemakhet - guardian of the atmosphere)

We are unlikely to ever resolve the argument over what the original form of the Sphinx was or exactly when it was first fashioned, but the essence of this ancient icon is perhaps partially revealed in its ancient name. 'Hwran Horemakhet - guardian of the atmosphere'.

Evidence suggests that the Sphinx's face has been re-carved at least once in history, (leaving it considerably smaller than its body). The features of the Sphinx profile have been described as both negroid and female.

(More about the Sphinx)



The Ghiza plateau (Giza, Geeza)- The Ghiza plateau has evoked more debate than any other ancient site in the world. Throughout history, people have struggled to understand the context of the site. The emergence and subsequent disappearance of such superior masonry skills, combined with the imaginative confidence of the designers resulted in one of the worlds most enduring archetypes of human potential, along with an unprecedented level of speculation over why, when, by whom it was originally constructed.

Link to Giza

The high level of interest over the origin and purpose of the Ghiza complex has resulted in several widely varying theories, a situation which only exacerbates the search for truth. The importance of Ghiza (and other contemporary pyramids in the Memphis area), hinges primarily on the level of geometry and astronomy expressed in the design of the layout or proportions of the constructions.

 Features include: Analysis of construction features, Historical references and observations, Identified geometry, Pyramid alignments, The Sphinx, builders.

(More about the Giza Plateau).

(Beneath Giza)


Extreme Egyptian masonry: Egypt has produced some of the most incredible examples of stone-carving in the ancient world. Even Petrie became convinced that the early Egyptian masons had to be in possession of machinery in order to create the tens of thousands of finely carved stone vases discovered.

Clear evidence of 'Machine tools', 'Core drilling', 'Mass-produced lathe-cut vases', 'Seamless masonry' and even the use of 'concrete' justifies a re-appraisal of the levels of skills of the Early-dynasty Egyptians.

(Extreme Egyptian Masonry)



Link to Denderra, Egypt.Egyptian astronomy - A knowledge of astronomy is present from the origin of the dynasties. It is entwined into the very fabric of Egyptian religion, mythology and architecture as far back as the evidence permits.

The symbolic joining together of upper and lower Egypt under a single crown, didn't prevent a distinction remaining between the orientation of temples (pyramids) in the north, which were built to face the cardinal points (and therefore the equinoxes), whilst those in the south maintained a preference for orientation to the solstices (such as Karnack, Denderra, Abydoss etc).

It is an interesting fact that with the exception of one example, there are no megalithic remains in Egypt. This singular megalithic site is the Nabta stone circle, which is significantly located on the Tropic of Cancer.

(More about Egyptian Astronomy)


Egyptian Geometry - Apart from the obvious example of the pyramids themselves, the Rhind papyrus amongst others, clearly demonstrates the sophisticated level of Egyptian mathematics at around 1650 BC.

It has been suggested that the placing of the most significant Egyptian temple complexes such as at Karnak and Giza were based on a knowledge of geometry and the concept of a spherical world. This idea has support from Herodotus, who links sacred Egyptian sites with their Greek and Libyan counterparts the 'Oracle centres', which also show the same accurate placement according to observation of longitude and latitude.

Not only do the Ghiza pyramids have geometry in their proportions, they are also just one of several 'Memphite' pyramid complexes aligned to Heliopolis.

(More about Pyramid Geometry)     (Prehistoric Egyptian Geodesy)



The Oldest Known Papyrus Roll - Blank Circa 2,900 BCE

"The ancient Egyptians had used rolls made of papyrus from the early days of the Old Kingdom. The oldest known papyrus roll was found in the tomb of Hemaka in Saqqara, and dates to the 1st dynasty, around 2900 BC. The hieroglyph for 'papyrus roll' existed already in inscriptions from this period. The 1st dynasty roll was blank; the oldest examples with writing dated from the 4th and 5th dynasties"

(Ref: Roemer, "The Papyrus Roll in Egypt, Greece, and Rome," Eliot & Rose (eds) A Companion to the History of the Book [2007] 84).



   The Cultural Revolution of the First Dynasties:
Pre-dynastic Nile-valley culture was pastoral and agricultural, and shows no  evidence of the expected gradual and progressive development to the knowledge and skills of the fourth dynasty builders of Giza. Instead, many of these skills, along with religious, cultural and artistic developments appear, seemingly overnight.

The development from 1st to 5th dynasty can be compared to progress from the industrial revolution to present day.

Mendelssohn (3) says of this:

'...most Egyptologists are inclined to think that at about 3,400 BC a large scale invasion of Egypt took place. Where the invaders came from is not known. Burial customs and certain architectural features are similar to the earliest Mesopotamian civilisation but striking differences make it unlikely that this was the origin of the invaders. It seems more probable that the rulers of Egypt and of Mesopotamia had a common ancestry from which they derived common traits...'

The answer varies according to source, but it is reasonably accepted that this process did not take place without some direct influence from one or many sources, such as Mesopotamia (Sumeria), for example :-
Three Mesopotamian cylinder seals of the later Uruk or proto-literate period have been found in Egypt: One was from Naqada. From then onwards the Egyptians used the cylinder seal - a Mesopotamian invention. (1)
Mesopotamian motifs appear in Egyptian art. On the ivory handle of a flint knife from Abydoss, there is represented the Mesopotamian hero Gilgamesh, subduing two lions, and the same theme is repeated on a wall painting from Hierakonpolis, belonging to one of the earliest brick buildings in southern Egypt. (1)
There appeared suddenly in Egypt the monumental style of building based on mud-brick, and we find the ancient Egyptians abandoning reed, papyrus, palm branches and rush matting in favour of sun-dried bricks made in wooden rectangular moulds. And in using bricks in their buildings they also incorporated recessed facades and pilasters such as were used in early Mesopotamian buildings. (1)
Hieroglyphic writing is first found on the slate palettes of late pre-dynastic times; where it is already well advanced and is using ideograms and phonograms. This first Egyptian writing must surely have derived from another, as yet, unidentified source such as earlier Mesopotamian writing. (1)

It is known that there was a close connection between the early dynastic Egyptians and the Sumerians. The Knife found at the Royal cemetery in Abydoss (right), with its depiction of Gilgamesh, is proof enough, but the following information suggests that the cultural link  may have been stronger than once thought.

The pre-dynastic Pharaohs of Egypt were Sumerians from about 2780 B.C. At the time of Sargon (Sargon the Great) Egypt was referred to as Mizir or Dilmun and his tomb (as a predynastic Pharaoh) was found at the royal tombs at Abydos (in Egypt today).

Egyptian hieroglyphs are a slightly modified conventional form of the Sumerian diagrammatic picture-writing which came into use during the rule of Menes and the 1st dynasty pharaohs; they have the same phonetic values as their parent picture-signs in the Sumerian.

Menes (Manj of Egyptian legend) (Manis of Mesopotamia) (Min or Minos of Greek legend) erected Egypt into an independent kingdom and preserved its independence within the Mesopotamian empire when he succeeded to the throne after his father's death; Menes was the prince of Sumeria and governor of the Sumerian Indus Valley. Menes annexed and civilized Crete and extended his rule to the Pillars of Hercules and Britain.

Menes was the son of Sargon (who had a Queen named Lady Ash), or "Sargon the Great" of ancient Mesopotamia and Menes and his dynasty referred to themselves as "Gut"(Goth) (in Indus Valley seals) and "Bar" or "Par"(Pharaoh) (as referred to in Egyptian records).

Menes' Egyptian inscriptions were written in Sumerian script (not the later conventionalized hieroglyphs) and deciphered to match Menes' Mesopotamian and Elam records as well as his official seals in the Indus Valley (where he was a Sumerian governor there until he revolted against his father (Sargon) and annexed Egypt). Menes had a son named Narmar or Naram (Naram Enzu) whom he sent to the Indus colony of Edin as a viceroy.

(Cultural Connections Between Early Dynastic Egypt and Sumeria)




   List and Description of Egyptian Locations:




Abu Simbel.

Temple complex, Moved in pieces because of Aswan Dam.

Abydoss. (Osireion).

Underground structure dedicated to Osiris. Temple of Seti-I above.


Temple dedicated to Hathor. Several enigmatic engravings.

Giza (Ghiza)

Giza plateau, Pyramid complex, Sphinx.

Heliopolis (Anu, On)

The capital of northern Egypt. Focus of pyramid alignment.

Karnak (Thebes)

The capital of southern Egypt and geodetic centre.

Labyrinth (Lost)

The Legendary 'lost' Labyrinth re-discovered.

Nabta Playa.

Megalithic complex. Stone circle.

Osireion (Abydoss)

Underground Temple dedicated to Osiris. Temple of Sei I above.


Burial ground and home to the first Egyptian pyramid.


'The guardian of the Athmosphere'

Unfinished Obelisk.

The largest stone ever cut, but still in-situ, as found flawed.




1). G. Daniels. The First Civilisations. 1968. Pelican Books.
2). Ivan Van Sertima. Egypt: Child of Africa. 1995. Transaction Publ.
3). K. Mendellsohn. The Riddle of the Pyramids. 1974. Thames and Hudson.