Other Greek Sites:




Oracle Centres.

Earth Navels.

Eleusian Mysteries.

Antikythera Device.

Phaistos Disc.

Greek Automata.


Ancient Greece Homepage.

Index of Ancient Sites.








About Us.

A-Z Site Index.

Gift Shop.

Contact Us

 Location: Near Heraklion, Crete, Greece.  Grid Reference: 35� 17' N,  25� 10' E.


      Knossos: (Minoan Capital City).


Knossos was inhabited for several thousand years, beginning with a Neolithic settlement sometime in the seventh millennium BC. The Palace was first built around the original site and was abandoned after its destruction around 1,375 BC which marked the end of Minoan civilization.

The restorations performed by Evans have been criticized as inaccurate, and there is a feeling that many of the details were reconstituted (to use Evans' term) utilizing at best "educated guesses".


(Click here for Ground-plan of Knossos)



Article: LiveScience.com (May, 2013)

'Mysterious Minoans Were Europeans According to DNA'

'The Minoans, the builders of Europe's first advanced civilization, really were European, new research suggests. The conclusion, published today (May 14) in the journal Nature Communications, was drawn by comparing DNA from 4,000-year-old Minoan skeletons with genetic material from people living throughout Europe and Africa in the past and today.

"We now know that the founders of the first advanced European civilization were European," said study co-author George Stamatoyannopoulos, a human geneticist at the University of Washington. "They were very similar to Neolithic Europeans and very similar to present day-Cretans," residents of the Mediterranean island of Crete'.

(Link to Full Article)


   Knossos: Capital of the Minaon Empire.

Knossos has been inhabited longer than any other site in Crete. The first Neolithic settlers probably arrived some time before  7,000 - 6,000 BCE, making their the first settlement on what was to be the eventual site of the palace. These settlers did not make pottery but grew crops and kept animals.

The first Minoan palace (1,900 B.C.), was built on the ruins of a Neolithic settlement. This was destroyed in 1,700 B.C. and a new palace built in its place. Between 1,700-1,450 BC, the Minoan civilisation was at its peak and Knossos was the most important city-state. During these years the city was destroyed twice by earthquakes (1,600 BC, 1,450 BC) and rebuilt. The city of Knossos is estimated to have held up to 100,000 people at its peak and it continued to be an important city-state until the early Byzantine period.

Homer states in Odyssey, ��the great city, where Minos was king�and conversed with great Zeus.

This remained
uncorroborated until  1899 by Arthur Evans, who started digging in 1900 and uncovered the palace of Knossos and through it, the Minoan civilisation.

The Palace at Knossos has the same architectural design found at other Minoan palaces. There is a central courtyard, with living rooms and storage rooms off the courtyard. The palaces were the economic, social, religious and political centres for the Minoan civilization.

Knossos and the Minoan empire show a sudden decline at the same period as the Santorini (Thera) eruption which had a devastating effect on all Mediterranean cultures the time.


Plumbing and Drainage at Knossos:

The palace had hypocaust heating and plumbing which brought in hot and cold water and flushing toilets.

At Knossos, the Minoans took advantage of the steep grade of the land to devise a drainage system with lavatories, sinks and manholes. Archaeologists have found pipe laid in depths from just below the surface in one area to almost 11 feet deep in others.

They constructed a main sewer of masonry, which linked four large stone shafts emanating from the upper stories of the palace. Evidently the shafts acted as ventilators and chutes for household refuse. The shafts and conduit were formed by cement-lined limestone flags, but earthenware or burnt clay pipes were used in the remainder of the system. These were laid out under passages, not under the living rooms.

The sewer system consisted of terra cotta pipes, from 4"-6" in diameter.

The rain water from the roofs and the courts, and the overflows from the cisterns carried the water down into buried drains of pottery pipe. The pipes had perfect socket joints, so tapered that the narrow end of one pipe fixed tightly into the broad end of the next one. The tapering sections allowed a jetting action to prevent accumulation of sediment.

At Knossos we find the earliest known flushing toilet. The toilet was screened off by partitions and was flushed by rain water or by water held in cisterns from conduits built into the wall.

Not just palaces but ordinary homes were heated with sophisticated hypocaust systems, where heat was conducted under the floor, the earliest known to exist.

In the room dubbed the "queen's bathroom" decorated with wall frescoes, we find plaster stands which held ewers and washing basins, and a five-foot long tapered bathtub made of painted terra cotta and decorated with watery reeds.

There was no obvious outlet but used water was removed and discarded into a hole in the floor which connected to the main drain which discarged into the river Kairatos. Some of the stone slabs of the floor at Knossos have been partially removed to reveal the extensive sewage canal system underneath the whole settlement.

Pipes with running water and toilets found on Santorini are the oldest ever discovered. The dual pipe system suggests hot and cold running water.


The 'Horns of Consecration' (left) have been compared with the 'Altar of Sin'  (right), in the 'Temple of the Moon' on Bahrain (Dilmun). 

(Click here for more)


The Minoan Snake Goddesses:

Several snake goddesses were found buried in cists in the ground, named by Evans the 'Temple Repositories'. One of the statuettes had been deliberately broken before being placed in the repository and it has been suggested that this might have been a way of "killing" the cult figurines. Two of the Snake Goddesses have been restored and are among the must-see treasures in the Museum at Heraklion.

knossos, snake goddess.

The Snake Goddess: Faience figurine found at the temple repository at Knossos.

The neck and head of the figurine above is a reconstruction, presumably based upon the head of the other snake goddess and from the numerous examples of women's heads and faces painted in Minoan frescoes. The headpiece is also a reconstruction, based largely on a fragment of the front part which included a series of three dark-painted, raised medallions. The left forearm with the snake being held in the left hand is also a reconstruction. Only the tail of the snake, which protrudes above her fist, is original; the portion below the wrist, with the head, is a reconstruction.


The similar wooden statuette of woman with movable arms was found in 1896 by James Edward Quibell in a cache of magical objects in a tomb dating to Dynasty XIII (1786-1633 BCE) discovered under the Ramesseum, the mortuary temple of Ramesses II (1290-1224 BCE), at Thebes. The statuette, which holds a metal snake-wand in each hand, is thought to represent a female sau, a type of magician, who could supply magical protection (the Egyptian verb sa means "to protect") both by making charms and amulets, and by using spoken and written charms.

Besides the statuette, the cache also included some magico-medical papyri and a twisting bronze snake wand (now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge) which was evidently intended to be held in the middle where its body flattens out. It is approximately twice the size of those held by the wooden figurine.

An interesting feature of the Egyptian statuette is its moveable arms which could be raised so that the metal snakes in each hand are held up in a manner reminiscent of the Minoan Snake Goddess.


Large portions of the other snake-goddess figurine seen above are also reconstructions. Of the original figurine, only her torso, right arm, head, and her hat (except for a portion at the top) were found. It not at all clear, for example, that it is one single snake that has its head in her right hand and its tail in her left.


Minoan script-'Linear-A'

'The written language of the Minoans is called Linear A by archaeologists, linguists and historians, and has not yet been deciphered. The Mycenaean language, Linear B, was not deciphered until the 1950s, and linguists hope one day to crack the code, as more writings are unearthed in excavations. One example is the Phaistos Disc, where the writing runs in a spiral from the outside to the centre. Linguists now believe that Linear A and Linear B are very similar. Until recently it was believed that Linear A was not related to Linear B, an ancestor of the Greek language, and was not an Indo European language, a family that includes ancient Greek and Latin. However, this view has changed. Linguists have discovered a close relationship between Linear A and Sanskrit, the ancient language of India, with connections to Hittite and Armenian, making it clear that Linear A is an Indo European language'. (3)

An example of 'Linear-A'.

(A comparison of Linear-A and B and Other Proto-Greek scripts).



   The Phaistos Disc:

The Phaistos Disc is a disk of fired clay from the Minoan palace of Phaistos, possibly dating to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age (2nd Millennium BC). It is about 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter and covered on both sides with a spiral of stamped symbols. Its purpose and meaning, and even its original geographical place of manufacture, remain disputed, making it one of the most famous mysteries of archaeology. This unique object is now on display at the archaeological museum of Heraklion in Crete, Greece.

The Phaistos disc, Knossos, Crete.

The disc was discovered in 1908 by the Italian archaeologist Luigi Pernier in the Minoan palace-site of Phaistos, on the south coast of Crete, and features 241 tokens, comprising 45 unique signs, which were apparently made by pressing pre-formed hieroglyphic "seals" into a disc of soft clay, in a clockwise sequence spiralling towards the disc's centre.

The Phaistos Disc is generally accepted as authentic by archaeologists (2). The assumption of authenticity is based on the excavation records by Luigi Pernier. This assumption is supported by the later discovery of the Arkalochori Axe with similar but not identical glyphs.

(More about the Phaistos Disc)




   The Mythology of Knossos:


Deadalos and Icarus: According to Greek mythology, the palace was designed by famed architect Deadalos with such complexity that no one placed in it could ever find its exit. King Minos who commissioned the palace then kept the architect prisoner to ensure that he would not reveal the palace plan to anyone. Deadalos, who was a great inventor, built two sets of wings so he and his son Ikaros could fly off the island, and so they did. On their way out, Deadalos warned his son not to fly too close to the sun because the wax that held the wings together would melt. In a tragic turn of events, during their escape Ikaros, young and impulsive as he was, flew higher and higher until the sun rays dismantled his wings and the young boy fell to his death in the Aegean sea.


The Labyrinth and the Minotaur: The Labyrinth was the dwelling of the Minotaur in Greek mythology, and many associate the palace of Knossos with the legend of Theseus killing the Minotaur. King Minos' son, Androgeus, according to the myth, was a strong, athletic youth. He was sent to represent Crete in the Athenian games and was successful in winning many events. The King of Athens murdered Androgeus out of jealousy. When Minos heard about the death of his son, he was enraged and deployed the mighty Cretan fleet. The fleet took Athens and instead of destroying the city, Minos decreed that every nine years Athens was obligated to send him seven young men and seven virgin women. King Minos threw them into a labyrinth where they were sacrificed to the Minotaur. Theseus, the Athenian King's son, volunteered to be one of the seven sacrificial young men with the intention of killing the Minotaur and ending the suffering of Athens. If he succeeded in his mission, he told his father that he would raise white sails instead of the black sails on his ship. Theseus arrived at the palace of the Cretan King, and with the help of Minos' daughter, Ariadne (who fell in love with Theseus), he was able to kill the Minotaur. In returning home, Theseus, in his excitement, forgot to change the sails on the ship from black to white. The King of Athens saw the black sails. Thinking that his son's plan failed and that Theseus was dead, the king flung himself into the sea and died.

No labyrinth has been discovered.

(More about Labyrinths)



   Minoan Art: Images from Knossos:

The examples of art from Knossos have been noted for their non-military content. All were very fragmentary and their reconstruction and re-placement into rooms by the artist Piet de Jong is not without controversy.

From the Palace of Knossos: The famous "bull leaping" fresco from the East wing of the palace.
The different phases of the sport are shown. The bull leapers are both men and women. 15th century B.C.

The original 32-inch high fresco is in the Iraklio (or Heraklion) Archaeology Museum.


Dolphin fresco from the palace: Currently suggested to have originally been on the floor.




(Other Greek locations)



1). http://www.ancient-greece.org/archaeology/knossos.html
2). Campbell-Dunn, Graham (2006). Who Were the Minoans?. AuthorHouse. pp. p.207.
3). http://www.historywiz.com/minoanslinear-a.html

About Us Homepage  |  A-Z Site Index  |  Gift Shop  |  Contact-Us